Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2017
Volume 12 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-58

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EDITORIAL  

Management of chronic unexplained cough p. 1
Mohamed S Al-Hajjaj
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197761  PMID:28197214
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Pleural procedures in the management of malignant effusions p. 3
Lucia Ferreiro, Juan Suárez-Antelo, Luis Valdés
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197762  PMID:28197215
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common in clinical practice, and despite the existence of studies to guide clinical decisions, it often poses diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Once it is diagnosed, median survival does not usually exceed 6 months. The management of these patients focuses on symptom relief since no treatments have been shown to increase survival to date. Conversely, poor management can shorten survival. The approach must be multidisciplinary and allow for individualized care. Initial diagnostic procedures should be minimally invasive and, according to the results and other factors, procedures of increasing complexity will be selecting. Likewise, the treatment of MPEs should be individualized according to factors such as type of tumor, patient functional status, means available, benefits of each procedure, or life expectancy. Currently, treatment seems to tend toward less interventional approaches, in which patients can be managed on an outpatient basis, thus minimizing both the discomfort that more aggressive approaches involve and the costs of care associated with this disease. This article reviews the pleural procedures employed in the management of MPEs with special emphasis on the indication for each one, its usefulness, benefits, and complications.
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BRIEF REPORT Top

Introducing the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program for mechanically ventilated patients in Saudi Arabian Intensive Care Units p. 11
Raymond M Khan, Maha Aljuaid, Hanan Aqeel, Mohammed M Aboudeif, Shaimaa Elatwey, Rajeh Shehab, Yasser Mandourah, Khalid Maghrabi, Hassan Hawa, Imran Khalid, Ismael Qushmaq, Asad Latif, Bickey Chang, Sean M Berenholtz, Sultan Tayar, Khloud Al-Harbi, Amin Yousef, Anas A Amr, Yaseen M Arabi
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197765  PMID:28197216
Over the past decade, there have been major improvements to the care of mechanically ventilated patients (MVPs). Earlier initiatives used the concept of ventilator care bundles (sets of interventions), with a primary focus on reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, recent evidence has led to a more comprehensive approach: The ABCDE bundle (Awakening and Breathing trial Coordination, Delirium management and Early mobilization). The approach of the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) was developed by patient safety researchers at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and is supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to improve local safety cultures and to learn from defects by utilizing a validated structured framework. In August 2015, 17 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) (a total of 271 beds) in eight hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia joined the CUSP for MVPs (CUSP 4 MVP) that was conducted in 235 ICUs in 169 US hospitals and led by the Johns Hopkins Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality. The CUSP 4 MVP project will set the stage for cooperation between multiple hospitals and thus strives to create a countrywide plan for the management of all MVPs in Saudi Arabia.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The effect of demographics and patient location on the outcome of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome p. 17
Haitham El-Haddad, Hyejeong Jang, Wei Chen, Samran Haider, Ayman O Soubani
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197767  PMID:28197217
OBJECTIVE: Outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in relation to age, gender, race, pre-Intensive Care Unit (ICU) location, and type of ICU. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients enrolled in the ARDS network randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: A total of 2914 patients were included in these trials. Outcomes were adjusted to baseline covariates including APACHE III score, vasopressor use, cause of lung injury, lung injury score, diabetes, cancer status, body mass index, and study ID. Older patients had significantly higher mortality at both 28- and 60-day (odds ratio [OR] 2.59 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.12-3.18] P < 0.001 and 2.79, 95% CI: 2.29-3.39, P < 0.001, respectively); less ICU and ventilator free days (relative risk [RR] 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87-0.96, P < 0.001 and 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88-0.96, P < 0.001, respectively). For preadmission location, the 28- and 60-day mortality were lower if the patient was admitted from the operating room (OR)/recovery room (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.95, P = 0.026; and OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95, P = 0.025, respectively) or emergency department (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61-0.99, P = 0.039; and OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.89, P = 0.004, respectively), but no statistical differences in ICU and ventilator free days between different preadmission locations. Races other than white and black had a statistically higher mortality (28- and 60-day mortality: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.09-1.98, P = 0.011; and OR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.15-2.04, P = 0.004, respectively). Between whites and blacks, females and males there were no statistically significant differences in all outcomes. CONCLUSION: Older patients and races other than blacks and whites have higher mortality associated with ARDS. Mortality is affected by patients preadmission location. There are no differences in outcome in relation to the type of ICU, gender, or between blacks and whites.
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Polysomnographic findings in infants with Pierre Robin sequence p. 25
Abdullah Khayat, Saadoun Bin-Hassan, Suhail Al-Saleh
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197770  PMID:28197218
INTRODUCTION: Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is characterized by the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. It is commonly associated with the secondary cleft palate. Infants with PRS commonly have sleep-disordered breathing (SDB); including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as well as central sleep breathing abnormalities that are present from infancy. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the prevalence and severity of SDB in infants with PRS using polysomnography (PSG). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed the sleep laboratory database at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, during the period of May 2007 to March 2016. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Comparisons of PSG data were made between the OSA and non-OSA group using the Student's t-test for age and body mass index, Wilcoxon signed ranks test for the continuous PSG data and Chi-squared test for the categorical variables. METHODS: Patients with PRS were identified and their initial PSG was selected for this study. The main indication for referral was ongoing concerns regarding OSA symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients (28 females) were included with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 0.8 (±0.3) year. Twenty-two out of 46 (47%) had evidence of OSA of which 10 had mild, 3 had moderate, and 9 had severe OSA. The PRS infants with OSA were younger than the non-OSA group. Significant correlations were found between desaturation and arousal indices with obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. CONCLUSION: This retrospective chart review confirms a high prevalence of OSA in this population. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the outcomes of OSA in PRS population.
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Factors determining altered perfusion after acute pulmonary embolism assessed by quantified single-photon emission computed tomography-perfusion scan p. 30
Marc Meysman, Hendrik Everaert, Walter Vincken
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197772  PMID:28197219
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to analyze the evolution of perfusion (Q)-defects in patients treated for acute pulmonary embolism (PE), correlation with baseline parameters and evaluation of recurrence risk. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective observational cohort study in symptomatic normotensive PE. Comparison of the ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q-SPECT) acquired at baseline with a quantified SPECT (Q-SPECT) repeated at 1 week and 6 months. The Q-defect extent (percentage of total lung volume affected) was measured semiquantitatively. Data collected at baseline were age, gender, body mass index (BMI), history of previous venous thromboembolism (HVTE), Charlson's Comorbidity Score (CcS), plasma troponin-T and D-dimer levels, PE Severity Index, and tricuspid regurgitation jet (TRJ) velocity. RESULTS: Forty-six patients (22 men/24 women, mean age 61.7 years (± standard deviation 16.3)) completed the study. At 1 week, 13/46 (28.3 %) and at 6 months 22/46 (47.8%) patients had completely normalized Q-SPECT. Persistence of Q-defects was more frequent in female patients in univariate and multivariate analysis. We found no correlation between the persistence of Q-defects on Q-SPECT and HVTE, BMI, plasma troponin-T, and CcS. However, lower TRJ and younger age were statistically significantly linked to normalization of Q-scans after 6 months of treatment only in univariate analysis. There is no difference in the frequency of recurrent PE in relation to the persistence of Q-defects. CONCLUSION: Acute PE patients of female, older age, and higher TRJ in univariate analysis and patients of female in multivariate analysis seem to have a higher risk of persistent Q-defects after 6 months treatment. The presence of residual Q-abnormalities at 6 months was not associated with an increased risk for recurrent PE.
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Association between thyroid cancer and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in female with nonsmall cell lung cancer p. 36
Seo Yun Kim, Hye-Ryoun Kim, Cheol Hyeon Kim, Jae Soo Koh, Hee Jong Baek, Chang-Min Choi, Joon Seon Song, Jae Cheol Lee, Im Il Na
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197774  PMID:28197220
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and thyroid cancer in female patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a retrospective study, we examined 835 female patients who were diagnosed with NSCLC and underwent an EGFR mutation test between June 2003 and August 2013. The associations of EGFR mutation with thyroid cancer and a family history of thyroid cancer were evaluated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: EGFR mutation was found in 378 of 835 patients. In addition to adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001), EGFR mutations were positively associated with a personal history of thyroid cancer (5.8% versus 2.6%; P = 0.020), while showing a trend toward inverse association with a personal history of nonthyroid cancer (5.8% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.086). Likewise, the incidence of EGFR mutations was associated with a family history of thyroid cancer (2.9% vs. 0.9%; P = 0.028), while showing a trend toward inverse association with a family history of nonthyroid cancer (27.8% vs. 33.7%; P = 0.066). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the incidence of EGFR mutations was different in women with thyroid or nonthyroid cancer (P = 0.035) and in women with a family history of thyroid or nonthyroid cancer (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that thyroid cancer and a family history of thyroid cancer are associated with EGFR-mutated NSCLC in female patients. The differences in the incidence of thyroid cancer and a family history of thyroid cancer by EGFR mutational status provide new insight into pathogenesis of this genetic change.
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Factors leading to refractory asthma in patients from Saudi Arabia p. 42
Amal M Al-Moamary, Mohamed S Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S Al Moamary
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197776  PMID:28197221
AIM: The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristic of patient with refractory asthma (RA) from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This paper prospectively studied in a university hospital factors leading to RA in a cohort of patients who have inadequately controlled asthma or with frequent exacerbations despite optimum controller therapy. It also studied patients with asthma that requires extended periods of oral steroids to control. RESULTS: The mean age was 45.1 years (±9.1) where 74 patients were enrolled in this study with the age group (37-48 years) is having the highest percentage (64.8%). Female patients represented 62.2%. The two major comorbid conditions were allergic rhinitis (54.1%) and gastroesophageal reflux (33.8%). The vast majority (72 patients) had at least one trigger factor for asthma (97.3%). The asthma control test showed that 86.4% had an uncontrolled status. Spirometry showed mild disease in 9.5%, moderate in 47.3%, and severe in 43.2%. Eosinophilia was seen in only 16.2%. Immunoglobulin E level between 70 and 700 μg/L was found in 58.1% of patients. CONCLUSION: RA has certain clinical characteristics and associated comorbid conditions as well as precipitating factors that facilitate the identifications of these cases.
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Anomalous systemic arterial supply of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients p. 46
Xiaomeng Hou, Ji Li, Jing Li, Baiqiang Cai
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197778  PMID:28197222
OBJECTIVES: This study described the characteristics of the systemic arterial supply of pulmonary sequestration (PS) in an attempt to better distinguish PS from other acquired lesions. METHODS: We identified 25 patients hospitalized at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital during January 2013 to December 2015 with the assistance of medical catalogers. Twenty-three patients with a definite diagnosis of "pulmonary sequestration" clinically or pathologically were included in the study. The medical records, imaging information, and pathological data were reviewed retrospectively. The general characteristics of the patients and the features of the anomalous arteries were summarized. RESULTS: Aberrant arterial supply of PS was found in all 23 (100%) cases. Among them, twenty patients received surgery, including 14 (70%) with aberrant arterial supply found before surgery, and the other 6 (30%) found during surgery. Nineteen (82.6%) patients had a single systematic arterial supply, with a median diameter of 8 mm. More than one arterial supplies were found in four (17.4%) cases. In 21 (91.3%) cases, the anomalous systemic artery originated from the descending thoracic aorta just adjacent to the sequestrated lung which it supplied, without the presence of accompanying bronchi. In twenty (87.0%) patients who received the surgical intervention, samples of 12 (85.7%) were proved to have elastic vessel walls, out of the 14 samples in which the anomalous systemic arteries were available for analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There are no certain pathology diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of PS. The detecting of the aberrant systematic artery and distinguishing it from the bronchial arteries corresponded to certain lung abnormalities are the keys to the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients. We propose that the characteristic features of the anomalous arteries include: Originating from aorta and its main branches, adjacent to the sequestrated area, directly running into the sequestrated mass without accompanying bronchus branch, being large in diameter, and having elastic vessel wall.
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A multifaceted approach to decrease inappropriate antibiotic use in a pediatric outpatient clinic p. 51
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Amel H Alawami
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197779  PMID:28197223
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents is the major cause for the development of resistance. Thus, it is important to include outpatient clinics in the development of antibiotic stewardship program. METHODS: We report a multifaceted approach to decrease inappropriate antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in an outpatient pediatric clinic. The interventions included educational grand round, academic detailing, and prospective audit and feedback and peer comparison. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 3677 outpatient clinic visits for URTIs were evaluated. Of all the included patients, 12% were <1 year of age, 42% were 1-5 years, and 46% were >5 years of age. Of the total patients, 684 (17.6%) received appropriate antibiotics, 2812 (76.4%) appropriately did not receive antibiotics, and 217 (6%) inappropriately received antibiotics. The monthly rate of prescription of inappropriate antibiotics significantly decreased from 12.3% at the beginning of the study to 3.8% at the end of the study (P < 0.0001). Antibiotic prescription among those who had rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) was 40% compared with 78% among those who did not have RSAT (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of education and academic detailing is important to improve antibiotic use.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A foreign body reaction to Surgicel® in a lymph node diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration p. 55
Diana Badenes, Lara Pijuan, Víctor Curull, Albert Sánchez-Font
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.197780  PMID:28197224
Surgicel ® (Ethicon, North Ryde, NSW, Australia) is an absorbable sheet of oxidized cellulose polyanhydroglucuronic acid polymer used as an hemostatic in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. In some cases, the retained material may cause foreign body granulomatous reactions and simulate tumor recurrence, an abscess, an hematoma, or an infection. We report the case of a 55-year-old patient who was operated of a lung adenocarcinoma. In the thoracic computed tomography scan 1 year after the surgery, a right paratracheal lymph node was detected, so endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) was performed suspecting recurrence of the tumor. The cytology results of the lymph node showed a nonnecrotizing granulomatous reaction secondary to Surgicel ® , used as an hemostatic during the surgery. The objective of presenting this case is to consider foreign body reaction to Surgicel ® in the differential diagnosis of postoperative suspicion of neoplastic recurrence, and on the other hand, to note that EBUS-TBNA enables diagnosis.
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Herceptin responsive lung adenocarcinoma in the setting of bilateral synchronous lung primaries and breast carcinoma Highly accessed article p. 57
Gerard J Fitzmaurice, Michael Moore, Waris Ahmad, Ronan J Ryan
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.182901  PMID:28197225
The incidence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2) mutations in lung adenocarcinoma is approximately 3%; however, its significance in the management of these lung cancers remains under investigation. We describe an incidental but unique opportunity to evaluate the response to treatment with herceptin in a patient with bilateral synchronous lung primaries in conjunction with breast carcinoma. Interval imaging following surgical resection of the squamous cell carcinoma while on herceptin treatment delineated the radiological regression of the Her-2 positive lung adenocarcinoma. We feel that this case highlights the potential role for herceptin treatment in Her-2 positive lung adenocarcinomas and demonstrates the importance of screening for these mutations.
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