Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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Year : 2007  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 158-162

Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

Hereditary Blood Diseases Center, King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
M K Alabdulaali
Kingdom of Saudia Arabia- Al-Hassa Hereditary Blood Diseases Center, King Fahad Hofuf Hospital, P.O. Box: (1) - Postal Code: (31982) Al-Hassa
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.36550

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Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients). Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51%) had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%). Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is significantly lower ( P <0.025) in patients from Eastern province compared to patients with African haplotype, mortality also is lower but not statistically significant. Conclusion : Acute chest syndrome in SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia is relatively uncommon, but causes significant morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence and recurrence is low if compared to that of patients with African haplotypes.

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