The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women
Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan1, Ahmed Amin Mandil2, Amel Ahmed Ahmed3, Hayfaa Abdulmajeed Wahabi1
1 Sheikh Bahamdan Research Chair of Evidence-based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Family & Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; High Institute of Public Health, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
3 Department of Biostatistics, King Saud Ben Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; High Institute of Public Health, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan
Sheikh Bahamdan Research Chair for Evidence based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 102599, Riyadh, 11685
Source of Support: This study was funded by grand (#RGP-VPP-149
date 4/6/1432) from the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud
University, Riyadh, KSA., Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO) analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure.
Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS.
Results: Of the study population 151 (27%) women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73%) self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%), the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%), the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%), and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%).
Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.