Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 127-143

Bronchiolitis in children: The Saudi initiative of bronchiolitis diagnosis, management, and prevention (SIBRO)

1 Department of Pediatrics, Prince Sultan Military City, Ministry of Defense, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Department of Pediatric, Ministry of National Guard, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Pediatrics, Umm Al Qura university, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
5 King Abdulaziz University, College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
6 Alyammamah Hospital, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
7 Department of Pediatrics, Security forces hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
8 King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Ministry of Health, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
9 College of Medicine, Peadiatric Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Adel S Alharbi
Department of Pediatrics, Prince Sultan Military City, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/atm.ATM_60_18

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Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of admissions in children less than two years of age. It has been recognized as highly debated for many decades. Despite the abundance of literature and the well-recognized importance of palivizumab in the high risk groups, and despite the existence of numerous, high-quality, recent guidelines on bronchiolitis, the number of admissions continues to increase. Only supportive therapy and few therapeutic interventions are evidence based and proved to be effective. Since Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the major cause of bronchiolitis, we will focus on this virus mostly in high risk groups like the premature babies and children with chronic lung disease and cardiac abnormalities. Further, the prevention of RSV with palivizumab in the high risk groups is effective and well known since 1998; we will discuss the updated criteria for allocating infants to this treatment, as this medication is expensive and should be utilized in the best condition. Usually, diagnosis of bronchiolitis is not challenging, however there has been historically no universally accepted and validated scoring system to assess the severity of the condition. Severe RSV, especially in high risk children, is unique because it can cause serious respiratory sequelae. Currently there is no effective curative treatment for bronchiolitis. The utility of different therapeutic interventions is worth a discussion.

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