Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 253-259

Small-airway disease and its reversibility in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children on highly active antiretroviral therapy: A cross-sectional study in an African setting

1 Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Ituku-Ozalla Enugu Campus; Department of Pediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku-Ozalla Enugu, Enugu, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Adaeze C Ayuk
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Ituku-Ozalla Enugu Campus, Enugu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/atm.ATM_494_20

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BACKGROUND: Lung function abnormalities may occur in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Small-airway disease (SAD) precedes abnormalities in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the presence and reversibility of SAD in HIV-infected children using the Global Lung Function Initiative standards. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over 6 months at the Paediatric HIV Clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Eligible consenting children with HIV infection were recruited. Lung function was measured, and the reversibility of FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) was assessed at 12% while that of forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (FEF25-75) was assessed at 12%, 15%, and 20%. Predictors of abnormal Z-score values were determined by multivariate linear and logistic regressions. Statistically significant values were set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: The mean Z-score for FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75 was − 2.19, −1.86, and − 1.60, respectively. Most patients (73%) had abnormal FEV1, while 52% had abnormal FEF25-75. Significant changes in FEV1 (P = 0.001) and FEF25-75 (P < 0.001) occurred after the bronchodilator response (BDR) test. Of the children whose FEV1 showed positive BDR, 70.9% had low zFEV1; 50% had low zFEF25-75, while all had low FEV1. Nutritional status (Z-score for body mass index) was significantly associated with low FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal FEF25-75 as a marker of SAD and FEV1 with a positive BDR are common in HIV-infected children. These lung function abnormalities justify long-term follow-up for these patients.

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