Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 280-286

Clinical profiles associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and complications from coronavirus disease-2019 in children from a national registry in Saudi Arabia

1 Global Center for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 College of Medicine, King Saud University; Department of Pediatric, King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Pediatric, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
5 School Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Fahad Alsohime
Department of Pediatric (39), College of Medicine, King Saud University, King Saud University Medical City, P.O. Box: 2925, Riyadh 11461
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/atm.atm_709_20

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CONTEXT: Exploring clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in children may help in prevention and treatment guidelines. AIMS: The aim of the to describe the spectrum of pediatric COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. SETTINGS And DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study involving pediatric COVID-19 patients across all Saudi regions. METHODS: All patients aged between 2 months and 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. The primary end point was the hospitalization. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistics were used to describe the baseline demographic data and clinical characteristics. Numerical data were explored using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and Shapiro–Wilk test, while Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical data. RESULTS: Among the 654 pediatric COVID-19 patients, 4.7% (n = 31) were hospitalized, with one patient only needing pediatric intensive care admission. Sex, breastfeeding, birth status, and the patients' living environment showed no significant association with hospitalization. Most children (80.3%, n = 525) were symptomatic, with two symptoms that were significantly associated with admission, namely, vomiting (P = 0.007) and nausea (P = 0.026). History of admission within the last year was identified in 10.4% (n = 68) children but had no association with worse outcome. The median duration of hospitalization for the entire group was 5.5 days, with longest hospital stay for age group 7–12 years (median 6 days). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is usually a milder disease in children. Although having preexisting medical conditions was linked to a longer hospitalization, it was not associated with worse outcome. Continuous surveillance will allow additional characterization of the burden and outcomes of pediatric COVID-19-associated hospitalizations.

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