Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 220-228

Clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality of hospitalized cancer patients with COVID-2019 in Mecca, Saudi Arabia


1 Department of Medicine, Pulmonology Division, King Abdullah Medical City, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, King Abdullah Medical City; Department of Internal Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, King Abdullah Medical City, Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nabil Ghaleb
Department of Medicine, Pulmonology Division, King Abdullah Medical City, Mecca
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/atm.atm_91_22

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BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are particularly vulnerable during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics and mortality among cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 53 patients with a malignancy and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection in a tertiary care center in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, from March 14, 2020, to October 29, 2020. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected from institutional electronic records and analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 53 patients (62% male) were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 54.9 ± 19.0 years, with 76% aged <65 years. The most common symptoms were fever (66%), dry cough (40%), and dyspnea (36%). Most infections (89%) were community acquired. Hematological malignancies (36%) were the most common cancer type. The most common solid tumors were breast cancer (23%) and colon cancer (9%). Just over half (51%) had a stage 4 tumor, and 30% of the patients had received chemotherapy within 2 weeks before the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Initial chest radiographs showed pneumonia in 43% of patients; 38%, 9%, and 6% required oxygen support, intensive care unit admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation, respectively. The most common complication was secondary bacterial infection (13.2%). The all-cause mortality rate was 17%. In the multivariable logistic regression, dyspnea, leukocytosis, use of systemic steroids, and secondary bacterial infection were found to be risk factors for death. CONCLUSION: Hospitalized cancer patients with COVID-19 have a high mortality rate. Our study finds a correlation between multiple independent risk factors and mortality. Patients with dyspnea, leukocytosis, systemic steroid use, or secondary bacterial infection require more care, attention, and possibly more aggressive treatment.


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