Coinfection of pulmonary tuberculosis with other lower respiratory tract infections: A retrospective cross-sectional study
Marwh G Aldriwesh1, Raghad A Alaqeel1, Aisha M Mashraqi2, Mutaib M Mashraqi3, Bayan A Albdah4, Azzah S Alharbi5
1 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; Ministry of the National Guard–Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Computer Sciences, College of Computer Science and Information Systems, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine; Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Marwh G Aldriwesh,
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, P. O. Box: 3660, Riyadh 11481
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been given to the development of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) during their anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) treatment and how that might affect patients' health status. Here, the prevalence and etiologies of other LRTIs in a cohort of PTB patients were determined, and the clinical features and outcomes were described.
METHODS: Adult patients with PTB between 2015 and 2020 were recruited and monitored during their anti-TB treatment for the presence of LRTIs. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from patients' medical records.
RESULTS: Data from 76 PTB patients (57 [75%] males) were reviewed. The median age was 61.0 (interquartile range 83.5–35.5) years, and other LRTIs were detected in 45 (59.2%) PTB patients. Of the 126 episodes of LRTIs, 84 (66.7%) were due to bacterial infections, 37 (29.4%) were due to fungal infections, and 5 (3.9%) were due to viral infections. The development of LRTIs was significantly more common in older (P = 0.012) and hypertensive patients with PTB (P = 0.019). Patients with PTB and LRTIs experienced significantly more frequent extrapulmonary infections (P = 0.0004), bloodstream infections (P = 0.001), intensive care unit stays (P = 0.001), and invasive mechanical ventilation use (P = 0.03) than patients who did not develop LRTI.
CONCLUSIONS: The identification of host-related risk factors for LRTI development among patients with PTB could be used to develop a prediction model for LRTI development. Hence, initiating antimicrobials early, in parallel with appropriate anti-TB treatment, may mitigate PTB-related health and economic consequences.