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2008| January-March | Volume 3 | Issue 1
January 3, 2008
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Pulmonary hypertension: Past, present and future
Robyn J Barst
January-March 2008, 3(1):1-4
Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula due to high intracuff pressure
Akmal A Hameed, Hasan Mohamed, Motasem Al-Mansoori
January-March 2008, 3(1):23-25
High-compliance endotracheal tube cuffs are used to prevent gas leak and also pulmonary aspiration in mechanically ventilated patients. However, the use of the usual cuff inflation volumes may cause tracheal damage and lead to tracheoesophageal fistula. Tracheostomy tube cuffs seal against the tracheal wall and prevent leakage of air around the tube, assuring that the tidal volume is delivered to the lungs. In the past, high-pressure cuffs were used, but these contributed to tracheal injury and have been replaced by high-volume, low-pressure cuffs. For long-term applications, some newer tubes have low-profile (tight to shaft) cuffs that facilitate the tracheostomy tube changes by eliminating the lip that forms when standard cuffs are deflated.
Percutaneous computed tomography-guided core biopsy for the diagnosis of mediastinal masses
Suyash Kulkarni, Aniruddha Kulkarni, Diptiman Roy, Meenakshi H Thakur
January-March 2008, 3(1):13-17
To describe various approaches of computed tomography (CT)-guided core biopsy and evaluate its ability to obtain adequate tissue for the assessment of mediastinal masses.
Materials and Methods :
Between February 2004 and October 2006, 83 percutaneous CT-guided biopsies of mediastinal lesions were performed on 82 patients under local anesthesia. Coaxial needles were used and minimum of 3-4 cores were obtained. Post-biopsy CT scan was performed and patients observed for any complications. Tissue samples were taken to Pathology Department in formalin solution.
From the 83 biopsies, adequate tissue for histological diagnosis was obtained in 80 (96%), and the biopsy was considered diagnostic. Of the 80 diagnostic biopsies, 74 biopsy samples were definitive for neoplastic pathology and 6 biopsy samples revealed no evidence of malignancy. There were no major complications. Minor complications were recorded in 5 patients.
Percutaneous image-guided core biopsy of mediastinal lesions is an accurate, safe and cost-effective tool for the initial assessment of patients with mediastinal masses.
Comparison of the efficacy and safety of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with the open method for the treatment of primary pneumothorax in adults
Mohammad I Al-Tarshihi
January-March 2008, 3(1):9-12
To determine whether video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is as effective as the traditional open method through axillary thoracotomy for the management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in adults.
Materials and Methods :
This retrospective study was conducted at King Hussein Medical Center in the period between March 2002 and March 2007. Eighty-two patients were included in this study. The patients were divided in two groups: group A, which included patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; and group B, which included patients who underwent open technique through axillary thoracotomy. Efficiency of the procedure, operative time, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, time to return to work and recurrence were compared between the two groups.
There were 79 males (96.3%) and 3 females (3.7%) with a mean age of 23.7 ± 4.2 years for group A patients and 24.2 ± 4.6 years for group B patients (range 16-37 years). Forty-one patients (50%) underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (group A), and 41 patients (50%) underwent open surgical technique through axillary thoracotomy (group B). Postoperative complication occurred in 8 patients (19.3%) from among those who underwent open technique and 6 patients (14.6%) from among those who underwent thoracoscopic technique. There was no perioperative mortality in both groups. Postoperative pain, volume of blood loss, period of air leak and hospital stay were less in group A, although the operative time was less in group B.
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is an efficient and safe method for the treatment of patients with primary pneumothorax in the adults.
Experience with 224 percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies at an adult intensive care unit in Bahrain: A descriptive study
Akmal A Hameed, Hasan Mohamed, Mariam Al-Ansari
January-March 2008, 3(1):18-22
Tracheostomy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in critically ill patients. Over the past 15 years, many large university hospitals have reported their experience with percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT). We have described and compared our experience with 224 PDTs that we performed in the last four and a half years. We have also compared PDT performed with and without bronchoscopic guidance at our setting and PDT verses surgical tracheostomy.
The purposes of this study are to evaluate the safety of PDT in our hospital setting and to compare our results with those published in the literature.
A retrospective study for our experiences about safety and efficacy of 224 PDTs in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting.
A 11-bedded adult medical, surgical, neuro-trauma ICU at Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain.
Materials and Methods:
This is based on our experiences about complications/timings of all PDTs performed from October 2002
to February 2007. A retrospective chart analysis.
There were 15 mechanical complications in total, including nine patients developing bleeding during or post-procedure, three patients developing pneumothorax and two patients developing cellulitis; in one procedure, a tracheostomy tube was misplaced. The proportion of total complications was 6.6% and no death.
From our experience, bronchoscope can be used during PDTs performed in ICU by inexperienced intensivists who do not have good exposure to procedures, but after gaining adequate experience, PDT can be performed safely without using bronchoscope.
A young male with shortness of breath
Fahmi Yousef Khan, Ahmed Al Ani, Mustafa S Allaithy, Issam A Al-Bozom
January-March 2008, 3(1):28-30
We report a case of primary mediastinal seminoma, which presented initially with shortness of breath and a swelling in upper part of anterior chest wall. The diagnosis of primary mediastinal seminoma was established on the basis of histologic findings and was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Abdominal, pelvis and cerebral CT scan, testicular ultrasound and TC-99 MDP bone scintigraphy were negative. Chemotherapy was initiated with B.E.P. protocol (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum); the patient received four cycles of chemotherapy. After 8 months, the patient was seen in the clinic; he was well.
Successful pregnancy outcome in Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome
Seema Chopra, Neelam Aggarwal, Vanita Suri, Meenakshi R Thami
January-March 2008, 3(1):26-27
Swyer-James-MacLeod (SJM) syndrome is a chronic, progressive lung disease as a result of infection and bronchial obstruction that ultimately leads to emphysema. It is associated with chronic cough, sputum production and recurrent chest infections and is occasionally seen in women of reproductive age. The radiological finding of unilateral hyperlucent lung is considered synonymous with the disease entity.
The presence of atypical mycobacteria in the mouthwashes of normal subjects: Role of tap water and oral hygiene
Siraj O Wali, MM Abdelaziz, AB Krayem, YS Samman, AN Shukairi, SA Mirdad, AS Albanna, HJ Alghamdi, AO Osoba
January-March 2008, 3(1):5-8
The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been found in different environmental sources. They tend to colonize different body surfaces and secretions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of NTM in the oral cavity of healthy individuals and its relationship to tap water or oral hygiene.
Materials and Methods :
One hundred sixty-seven healthy subjects were recruited. Three consecutive early morning mouthwashes using tap water were performed and examined for the presence of
(MTB) and NTM. In addition we obtained mouthwashes from 30 control healthy individuals with good oral hygiene using sterile water and examined these for the presence of MTB and NTM.
NTM was isolated from the mouthwash of 44 (26.3%) subjects that used tap water. On the other hand, NTM was isolated from the mouthwash of 10 (33%) subjects that used sterile water. Age, gender, social class oral hygiene and the regular use of toothbrush made no statistically significant differences in the isolation rate of NTM.
The rate of isolation of NTM from mouthwash is high in normal subjects. It is independent of oral hygiene, the use of tap water or teeth brushing. Smear-positive sputum could be NTM rather than
. Tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction or culture confirmation is essential in developing countries to avoid the unnecessary use of antituberculosis therapy when the clinical suspicion is very low.
Thoracic oncology multidisciplinary teams: Between the promises and challenges
Abdul-Rahman Jazieh, Abdulrahman Al Hadab, John Howington
January-March 2008, 3(1):34-37
The thoracic oncology multidisciplinary teams are playing an increasing role in the management of thoracic malignancies. These teams have a great potential to improve the patient care and the health care system, however, they are faced by many challenges. To realize the full potential of these teams, a better understanding of their functions, roles, benefits and challenges from all involved including teams members and leadership is crucial.
POSTGRADUATE CLINICAL SECTION
Persistent cough in a 61-year-old male
Kevin O'Regan, Sean McSweeney, Jamal Al Deen Alkoteesh
January-March 2008, 3(1):31-33
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