Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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   2011| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 28, 2010

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Evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes using 18 F-FDG PET-CT scan and its histopathologic correlation
Arvind Kumar, Roman Dutta, Umashankkar Kannan, Rakesh Kumar, Gopi Chand Khilnani, Siddhartha Datta Gupta
January-March 2011, 6(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74270  PMID:21264165
Aims and Objectives: To determine the efficacy of integrated 18 F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET-CT) in the evaluation and characterization of mediastinal lymph nodes into benign and malignant pathology. Methods: Thirty-five patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathies without primary neoplastic or infective lung pathologies were included in the study. The lymph nodes were detected on contrast-enhanced CT scan of the chest. All patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET-CT scan for evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. Results of PET-CT were compared with histopathology of the lymph nodes and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. Statistical Analysis: The data were collected prospectively and analyzed using (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) 11.5 software. Results: Histopathology results in 35 patients revealed tuberculosis in 12, sarcoidosis in 8, and lymphoma in 15. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the benign lymph nodes ranged from 2.3 to 11.8 with a mean±standard deviation (SD) of 5.02±3.26. SUVmax of the malignant lymph nodes ranged from 2.4 to 34 with a mean±SD of 10.8±8.12. There was a statistically significant difference between benign and malignant pathology (P<0.0059). 18 F-FDG PET-CT has sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 40% with SUVmax 2.5 as the cutoff. We found the optimal SUVmax cutoff to be 6.2 as determined by the receiver-operator characteristic curve. With 6.2 as cutoff, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 87%, 70%, and 77%, respectively. Conclusion : In countries where tuberculosis and other granulomatous diseases are endemic, SUVmax cutoff value of 2.5 has low specificity. Increasing the cutoff value can improve the specificity, while maintaining an acceptable sensitivity.
  14,265 1,188 38
Comparison and agreement between venous and arterial gas analysis in cardiopulmonary patients in Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent
Parvaiz A Koul, Umar Hafiz Khan, Abdul Ahad Wani, Rafiqa Eachkoti, Rafi A Jan, Sanaullah Shah, Zarka Masoodi, Syed Mudassir Qadri, Muneer Ahmad, Asrar Ahmad
January-March 2011, 6(1):33-37
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74274  PMID:21264169
Background: Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is routinely performed for sick patients but is fraught with complications, is painful, and is technically demanding. Objective: To ascertain agreement between the arterial and peripheral venous measurement of pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 , and bicarbonate levels in sick patients with cardiopulmonary disorders in the valley of Kashmir in the Indian subcontinent, so as to use venous gas analysis instead of arterial for assessment of patients. Setting: Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir, a 650-bedded tertiary care hospital in North India located at an altitude of 1584 m. Methods: One hundred patients who required ABG analysis were admitted. Peripheral venous blood was drawn within 5 min of an ABG measurement, and the samples analyzed immediately on a point of care automated ABG analyzer. Finger pulse oximetry was used to obtain oxygen (SpO 2 ) saturation. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and bias (Bland Altman) methods. Results: The venous measurements of pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 and bicarbonate, and the digital oxygen saturation were highly correlated with their corresponding arterial measurements. Bland Altman plots demonstrated a high degree of agreement between the two corresponding sets of measurements with clinically acceptable differences. The difference in pO 2 measurements was, however, higher (-22.34 ± 15.23) although the arterial saturation and finger oximetry revealed a good degree of agreement with clinically acceptable bias. Conclusion: Peripheral venous blood gas assessment in conjunction with finger pulse oximetry can obviate the routine use of arterial puncture in patients requiring ABG analysis.
  13,445 860 13
Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges
Ahmed S BaHammam
January-March 2011, 6(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74269  PMID:21264164
Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.
  11,533 888 18
Surgery for bronchiectasis: The effect of morphological types to prognosis
Ufuk Cobanoglu, Irfan Yalcinkaya, Metin Er, Ahmet Feridun Isik, Fuat Sayir, Duygu Mergan
January-March 2011, 6(1):25-32
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74273  PMID:21264168
Background : Although the incidence has declined over the past years in societies with high socioeconomic status, bronchiectasis is still an important health problem in our country. Aim : To review and present our cases undergoing surgery for bronchiectasis in the past 12 years and their early and late term postoperative outcomes and our experience in bronchiectasis surgery and the effect of morphological type on the prognosis. Methods : The medical records of 62 cases undergoing surgical resection for bronchiectasis in the Clinics of Thoracic and Pediatric Surgery were evaluated retrospectively. The disease was on the left in 33 cases, on the right in 26 and bilateral in three cases. The most common surgical procedure was lobectomy. Forty one patients underwent pneumonectomy, lobectomy and complete resection including bilobectomy. Twenty-one (33.87%) cases underwent incomplete resection, of whom 11 (17.74%) underwent segmentectomy and 10 (16.13%) underwent lobectomy + segmentectomy. Results : It was found that the rate of being asymptomatic was significantly higher in patients undergoing complete resection compared to those undergoing incomplete resection. Spirometric respiratory function tests were performed to assess the relationship between morphological type and the severity of disease. All parameters of respiratory function were worse in the saccular type and FEV 1 /FVC showed a worse obstructive deterioration in the saccular type compared to the tubular type. Conclusion : The success rate of the procedure increases with complete resection of the involved region. The morphological type is more important than the number and extension of the involved segments in showing the disease severity.
  9,852 808 9
What dose of anti-snake venom should be given in severe neuroparalytic snake bite?
Avinash Agrawal, Alok Gupta, Arjun Khanna
January-March 2011, 6(1):47-48
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74281  PMID:21264175
  6,476 555 2
Tracheal reconstruction by re-inforced Gore-Tex in esophageal submuscular tunneling: An experimental study
Hossein Hodjati, Saeed Reza Baezzat, Afsoon Fazelzadeh, Nader Tanideh, Bita Geramizadeh
January-March 2011, 6(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74271  PMID:21264166
Background: Tracheal reconstructions are aimed at rearranging or replacing parts of the tracheal tissue by different techniques. Here we introduce a new technique for tracheal reconstruction. Methods: In 10 adult dogs, after intubation with an endotracheal tube, a segment of trachea including seven tracheal rings was resected circumferentially. A submuscular tunnel was induced between mucosal and muscular layers of the adjacent esophagus lying right next to the trachea. The esophageal submuscular tunnel starts and ends exactly at the level of distal and proximal ends of tracheal resection, respectively. Inforced Gore-Tex passed through the esophageal submuscular tunnel the distal segment of trachea and end-to-end anastomosis were made between distal ends of Gore-Tex and trachea, then endotracheal tube removed and the same procedure was made for proximal ends of Gore-Tex and trachea. Afterward, the proximal and distal ends of the esophageal tunnel were approximated to proximal and distal tracheal parts over the anastomosis. Results: All dogs, except one due to anesthetic problem, survived and tolerated the operation; the first two dogs experienced postoperative fever, aspiration pneumonia, and died due to tracheoesophageal fistula. All survived animals were eating and barking well. We started to scarify dogs at least 6 and 12 weeks after operation for microscopy and pathologic examination. The Gore-Texes were patent and supported externally with fibrous connective tissue in esophageal tunneling, with in growth of respiratory epithelium on inner surfaces. Conclusion: Air tightness, good re-epithelialization, and relatively no limitation of esophageal length and no risk of luminal collapse are advantages of tracheal reconstruction by submuscular esophageal tunneling. This new method is worthy of further investigation, as it is technically feasible and easy to implement.
  6,101 561 1
Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning
Sumeet Bhargava, Rajul Rastogi, Ajay Agarwal, Gaurav Jindal
January-March 2011, 6(1):41-42
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74276  PMID:21264171
Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature.
  5,932 507 5
Difficult-to-treat asthma, is it really difficult?
Mohamed S Al-Hajjaj
January-March 2011, 6(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74268  PMID:21264163
  5,305 836 4
A near fatal complication following stenting of thoracic aortic aneurysm
Waseem M Hajjar, Sami A Al Nassar, Ahmed Iftikhar, Ahmed N Alaqeed
January-March 2011, 6(1):38-40
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74275  PMID:21264170
Tracheobronchial obstruction along with compression of pulmonary vessels is a rare complication after stenting of aortic aneurysm. We present this rare situation in a young patient who underwent stenting of traumatic thoracic aortic aneurysm and developed this near fatal complication and also the conservative management plan which we adopted to manage this case.
  5,289 492 -
Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia
Thamer H Al-Khouzaie, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Faisal M Al Subhi
January-March 2011, 6(1):22-24
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74272  PMID:21264167
Aim: To review a general hospital's experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008). Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17). The most common presentations were cough (48%), dyspnea (21%), joint pain (18%), splenomegaly (12%), hepatomegaly (9%), and lymphadenopathy (5%). The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in 14 (46.7%). The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29) except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%), and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.
  5,166 573 8
An elderly man with pulmonary hypertension
Prashanth Panduranga, Mohammed Mukhaini
January-March 2011, 6(1):43-45
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74277  PMID:21264172
  4,199 518 -
Electrocautery, bronchoscopic biopsy and hemorrhage
Andrew R.L Medford
January-March 2011, 6(1):48-49
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74282  PMID:21264177
  3,403 475 1
Smoking, once again
Abdullah Al-Mobeireek
January-March 2011, 6(1):46-46
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74278  PMID:21264174
  3,229 396 3
Filarial pleural effusion
K Gowrinath
January-March 2011, 6(1):46-47
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.74279  PMID:21264173
  3,016 413 1
Author's reply
R Garg
January-March 2011, 6(1):47-47
  2,604 342 1
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