Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| April-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 28, 2011

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Value of real-time endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration
Erdogan Cetinkaya, Gulsah Gunluoglu, Akif Ozgul, Mehmet Z Gunluoglu, Guler Ozgul, Ekrem C Seyhan, Atayla Gencoglu, Sule Gul
April-June 2011, 6(2):77-81
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78422  PMID:21572696
Aim : The diagnostic value of real-time convex-probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) in mediastinal pathologies, and the factors influencing it are not clearly known. This study has been designed to examine factors affecting the efficacy and diagnostic value of CP-EBUS-TBNA. Methods : Patients (n = 321) with mediastinal mass or enlarged lymph node in the mediastinum, participated in this study, conducted between April 2007 and May 2009. Samples were obtained from the lesions using the TBNA method, with the guidance of CP-EBUS. Histopathologic (in all samples) and microbiologic (in 151 patients' samples) evaluations were carried out. Biopsy using an appropriate surgical method was taken when the result of the TBNA procedure was nondiagnostic. Thirty-four patients were excluded from the analysis due to several reasons. The diagnostic efficacy of the procedure was analyzed in the remaining 287 patients. Results : The diagnostic rate was 92% (89.7% for the benign diseases and 92.6% for the malignant diseases (P = 0.59)). In granulomatous diseases, the rate was 96% for sarcoidosis and 79% for tuberculosis (P = 0.002). Patients in whom only one lymph node was sampled and in whom two or more lymph nodes were sampled had a diagnostic rate of 85% and 95%, respectively (P = 0.03). When left hilar nodes were sampled, a higher diagnostic rate was achieved (P = 0.01). Conclusions : CP-EBUS-guided TBNA has a high diagnostic rate. Sampling of at least two separate lymph nodes and the discovery of left hilar station in these lymph nodes increase the rate of diagnosis.
  21 5,736 830
Comprehensive out-patient pulmonary rehabilitation: Treatment outcomes in early and late stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Pinar Ergün, Dicle Kaymaz, Ersin Günay, Yurdanur Erdogan, Ülkü Yilmaz Turay, Nese Demir, Ebru Çanak, Fatma Sengül, Nurcan Egesel, Serdal Kenan Köse
April-June 2011, 6(2):70-76
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78420  PMID:21572695
Background : The aim was to evaluate the outcomes of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to establish whether in early disease stage PR is as effective as in late stages of disease. Methods : A total of 55 stable COPD patients, 28 with early and 27 with late disease stages, were assessed. Patients underwent a comprehensive out-patient PR program for 8 weeks. To eluciate the effects of PR and compare the level of improvement; lung function, dyspnea sensation [Medical Research Council (MRC)], body composition [body mass index (BMI), fat free mass (FFM), fat free mass index (FFMI)], exercise capacity [incremental shuttle walking test, endurance shuttle walking test], health related quality of life (HRQoL) with St. George Respiratory Disease Questionnaire, psycohological status (Hospital anxiety-depression (HAD) scale) were evaluated before and after PR. Results : At the end of PR in the early disease stage group, the improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) reached a statistically significant level (P < 0.05). In both disease stages, there were no significant differences in BMI, FFM, and FFMI. The decrease in exertional dyspnea for the two groups evaluated with the modified BORG scale were not found statistically significant, though the dyspnea scores evaluated with MRC showed significant improvements (P < 0.001). HRQoL and exercise capacity were significantly improved for the two groups (P < 0.001). Psychological status evaluated with the HAD scale improved after PR (P < 0.001) both in early and late stages. Gainings in the study parameters did not differ in the early and the late disease stages. Conclusions : These results showed that patients with COPD had benefited from a comprehensive PR program in an out-patient setting regardless of disease severity. Even patients with earlier stage of disease should be referred and encouraged to participate in a PR program.
  20 5,262 855
Factors associated with death or intensive care unit admission due to pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection
Payam Tabarsi, Ahmadreza Moradi, Majid Marjani, Parvaneh Baghaei, Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian, Seyed Alireza Nadji, Atefeh Fakharian, Davood Mansouri, Mohammadreza Masjedi, Aliakbar Velayati
April-June 2011, 6(2):91-95
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78429  PMID:21572699
Background : In preparation for pandemic H1N1 or H1N1 influenza (H1N1) it is necessary to identify factors associated with mortality of patients with H1N1 and hospital admissions to intensive care unit (ICU) of patients diagnosed in 2009 with H1N1. Objectives : To describe the clinical and epidemiological features associated with 2009 H1N1 mortality and ICU patient admissions to Masih Daneshvari Teaching Hospital, Iran. Methods : A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with mortality and admissions to ICU with confirmed H1N1. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings, and epidemiologic data were abstracted from medical records, using a standardized datasheet. Results : From June through December 2009, 20 out of the 46 confirmed hospitalized patients with confirmed H1N1 were admitted to the ICU and 7 (15%) died. Among various variables, opium inhalation (P = 0.01), having productive cough, hemoptysis, chest pain, confusion, and loss of consciousness were significantly related to ICU admission (P < 0.05). Pleural effusion (P = 0.006), elevated liver enzymes, as well as CPK and LDH level were significantly relevant to ICU admission (P < 0.05). Delayed antiviral treatment was more common among patients who died and the elderly. Discussion : Patients who were admitted to ICU with confirmed H1N1 included the following risk factors: delayed initiation of antiviral therapy, history of opium inhalation and symptoms including; productive cough, hemoptysis, chest pain, confusion, and loss of consciousness. The mortality rate in the study population was high but compares favorably with other recent published studies.
  17 6,324 680
Transbronchial needle aspiration "by the books"
Elif Kupeli, Leyla Memis, Tugce S Ozdemirel, Gaye Ulubay, Sule Akcay, Fusun O Eyuboglu
April-June 2011, 6(2):85-90
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78427  PMID:21572698
Background : Training for advanced bronchoscopic procedures is acquired during the interventional pulmonology (IP) Fellowship. Unfortunately a number of such programs are small, limiting dissemination of formal training. Objective : We studied success of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) in the hands of physicians without formal IP training. Methods : A technique of C-TBNA was learned solely from the literature, videos and practicing on inanimate models at "Hands-On" courses. Conventional TBNA with 21 and/or 19 gauge Smooth Shot Needles (Olympus® , Japan) was performed on consecutive patients with undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Results : Thirty-four patients (male 23), mean age 54.9 ± 11.8 years underwent C-TBNA. Twenty-two patients had nodes larger than 20 mms. Suspected diagnoses were malignancy in 20 and nonmalignant conditions in 14. Final diagnoses were malignancy 17, sarcoidosis 4, reactive lymph nodes 12, and tuberculosis 1. Final diagnosis was established by C-TBNA in 14 (11 malignancy, 3 sarcoidosis; yield 41.1%), mediastinoscopy in 14, transthoracic needle aspiration in 3, peripheral lymph node biopsies in 2 and by endobronchial biopsy in 1. Nodal size had an impact on outcome (P = 0.000) while location did not (P = 0.33). C-TBNA was positive in 11/20 when malignancy was suspected (yield 55%), while 3/14 when benign diagnosis was suspected (yield 21.4%) (P = 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy were 66.6%, 100%, 100%, 65%, and 79.4%, respectively. There were no complications or scope damage. Conclusion : Conventional-TBNA can be learned by the books and by practicing on inanimate models without formal training and results similar to those published in the literature could be achieved.
  14 7,340 792
Pulmonary vascular complications of chronic liver disease: Pathophysiology, imaging, and treatment
Ali Nawaz Khan, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Khalid Abdullah, Klaus L Irion, Quratulain Sabih, Alaa Gouda
April-June 2011, 6(2):57-65
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78412  PMID:21572693
To review the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease, we discuss their clinical implications, and therapeutic considerations, with emphasis on potential reversibility of the hepatopulmonary syndrome after liver transplantation. In this review, we also discuss the role of imaging in pulmonary vascular complications associated with liver disease.
  7 22,706 1,876
Association of beta 2 -adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and nocturnal asthma in Saudi patients
Abdullah M Al-Rubaish
April-June 2011, 6(2):66-69
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78416  PMID:21572694
Background and Objectives : Two polymorphisms of beta 2 -adrenergic receptor (β2 -AR) gene, namely the substitution from arginine (Arg) to glycine (Gly) at codon 16 and from glutamine (Gln) to glutamic (Glu) at codon 27, are linked with functional changes in the β2 -AR in the respiratory system even though they are not deemed to be susceptibility genes for asthma per se. The objective of this study was to investigate this association in a subset of asthmatic patients, namely those with nocturnal asthma. Methods : The β2 -AR gene polymorphisms at codon 16 and 27 were assessed in 40 patients clinically diagnosed with nocturnal asthma and 96 normal controls. Genomic DNA was obtained from whole blood and genotyping was carried out by a PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results : There was a statistically significant difference in genotype frequencies at codon 16 (Arg/Gly) between nocturnal asthmatic patients and normal control subjects (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference in allele frequencies between the two groups. In addition, there was a significant association between Arg16-Gly genotype with nocturnal asthma compared to homozygous Gly16 (codominant model P = 0.0033, OR = 3.69: 95% CI: 1.49-9.12). However, there were no statistically significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies at codon 27 (Gln/Glu) between the normal control and nocturnal asthmatic groups (χ2 = 1.81, P = 0.41). The results also indicate that linkage disequilibrium existed between the β2 -AR codon 16 and β2 -AR codon 27 polymorphism (/ D΄/ = 0.577). The data for all haplotypes did not show a statistically significant association. Conclusion : We present the genotype and allele frequencies of β2 -AR gene polymorphisms in normal Saudi subjects and nocturnal asthmatic patients. There was a significant difference in genotype frequencies at codon 16 (Arg/Gly). However, our study indicates a poor association of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms with nocturnal asthma.
  6 5,312 629
Pneumatocele formation in adult Escherichia coli pneumonia
MM Puri, A Srivastava, AK Jain, D Behera
April-June 2011, 6(2):101-102
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78434  PMID:21572702
  5 7,096 603
Dilemma of women's passive smoking
Randa M Mostafa
April-June 2011, 6(2):55-56
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78410  PMID:21572692
  4 6,705 643
Improving adherence to venous thromoembolism prophylaxis using multiple interventions
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Bassam M Saadeh
April-June 2011, 6(2):82-84
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78425  PMID:21572697
Objective : In hospital, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) increases the morbidity and mortality in patients with acute medical illness. DVT prophylaxis is well known to be effective in preventing venous thromoembolism (VTE). However, its use remains suboptimal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of quality improvement project on adherence with VTE prophylaxis guidelines and on the incidence of hospital-acquired VTEs in medical patients. Methods : The study was conducted at Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization from June 2008 to August 2009. Quality improvement strategies included education of physicians, the development of a protocol, and weekly monitoring of compliance with the recommendations for VTE prophylaxis as included in the multidisciplinary rounds. A feedback was provided whenever a deviation from the protocol occurs. Results : During the study period, a total of 560 general internal medicine patients met the criteria for VTE prophylaxis. Of those, 513 (91%) patients actually received the recommended VTE prophylaxis. The weekly compliance rate in the initial stage of the intervention was 63% (14 of 22) and increased to an overall rate of 100% (39 of 39) (P = 0.002). Hospital-acquired DVT rate was 0.8 per 1000 discharges in the preintervention period and 0.5 per 1000 discharges in the postintervention period, P = 0.51. However, there was a significant increase in the time-free period of the VTE and we had 11 months with no single DVT. Conclusion : In this study, the use of multiple interventions increased VTE prophylaxis compliance rate.
  4 5,336 610
Pulmonary strongyloidiasis associated CD3+ large granular lymphocytosis
Muhammad A Rishi, Saleha Z Chaudhry
April-June 2011, 6(2):96-98
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78432  PMID:21572700
We report a case of pulmonary strongyloidiasis in a patient with large granular lymphocytosis. He was on short-term high dose immunosuppressant therapy. A 77-year-old white male presented to the emergency room with fever and shortness of breath for 10 days. The patient had been diagnosed about 3 months prior to this presentation with "large granular lymphocytosis" (LGL) after a workup for pancytopenia. Methotrexate and prednisone had been started 1 month ago for the treatment of LGL. Five days prior to the current presentation, he had been started on moxifloxacin as an outpatient but got progressively worse and came to an emergency room. Bronchial washings (bronchoalveolar lavage) demonstrated numerous filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient was treated with ivermectin and improved. Pulmonary strongyloidiasis should be considered in the differential if X-ray findings show a interstitial or alveolar pattern and if the patient has visited the endemic areas, even in the remote past.
  1 6,267 546
The perils of laboratory research
Feisal A Al-Kassimi, Muhammad A Chishi
April-June 2011, 6(2):102-103
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78435  PMID:21572703
  - 2,758 385
Hemothorax complicating rheumatoid arthritis
Mahesh Prakash, Subramaniyan Ramanathan, Surjit Singh, Niranjan Khandelwal
April-June 2011, 6(2):99-100
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.78433  PMID:21572701
  - 4,817 579
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