Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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   2013| April-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 30, 2013

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Approach to acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Hammad Bhatti, Ankur Girdhar, Faisal Usman, James Cury, Abubakr Bajwa
April-June 2013, 8(2):71-77
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109815  PMID:23741267
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial pneumonia with a median survival of 3 years after diagnosis. Acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) is now identified as a life-threatening complication. It presents as worsening dyspnea with new ground glass opacities superimposed upon a radiographic usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis of AE-IPF is poor and treatment strategies lack standardization. In order to rule out any reversible etiology for an acute decompensation of a previously stable IPF patient diagnostic modalities include computerized tomographic angiogram (CTA) coupled with high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) imaging of the chest, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and echocardiogram with bubble study. Avoiding risk factors, identifying underlying causes and supportive care are the mainstays of treatment. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant medications have not shown to improve survival in AE-IPF. Most of the patients are managed in a critical care setting with mechanical ventilation. Lung transplantation is a promising option but most institutions are not equipped and not every patient is a candidate.
  29,233 2,173 3
The role of thoracic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism
Sevda Sener Comert, Benan Caglayan, Ulku Akturk, Ali Fidan, Nesrin Kiral, Elif Parmaksiz, Banu Salepci, Betul Ayca Ozdere Kurtulus
April-June 2013, 8(2):99-104
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109822  PMID:23741272
Objectives: The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is still a problem especially at emergency units. The purpose of study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) in patients with PE. Methods: In this prospective study, 50 patients with suspected PE were evaluated in Department of Pulmonary Diseases of a Training and Reasearch Hospital between January 2010 and July 2011. At the begining, TUS was performed by a chest physician, subsequently for definitive diagnosis computed tomography pulmonary angiography were performed in all cases as a reference method. Other diagnostic procedures were examination of serum d-dimer levels, echocardiography, and venous doppler ultrasonography of the legs. Both chest physician and radiologist were blinded to the results of other diagnostic method. Diagnosis of PE was suggested if at least one typical pleural-based/subpleural wedge-shaped or round hypoechoic lesion with or without pleural effusion was reported by TUS. Presence of pure pleural effusion or normal sonographic findings were accepted as negative TUS for PE. Results: PE was diagnosed in 30 patients. It was shown that TUS was true positive in 27 patients and false positive in eight and true negative in 12 and false negative in three. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of TUS in diagnosis of PE for clinically suspected patients were 90%, 60%, 77.1%, 80%, and 78%, respectively. Conclusions: TUS with a high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy, is a noninvasive, widely available, cost-effective method which can be rapidly performed. A negative TUS study cannot rule out PE with certainty, but positive TUS findings with moderate/high suspicion for PE may prove a valuable tool in diagnosis of PE at bedside especially at emergency setting, for critically ill and immobile patients, facilitating immediate treatment decision.
  5,598 895 10
Pulmonary hypertension in Saudi Arabia: A single center experience
Esam H Alhamad, Joseph G Cal, Hussam F Alfaleh, Mostafa Q Alshamiri, Ahmad A AlBoukai, Suliman A AlHomida
April-June 2013, 8(2):78-85
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109816  PMID:23741268
Context: Several international studies have described the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, information about the incidence and prevalence of PH in Saudi Arabia is unknown. Aims: To report cases of PH and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of PH due to various causes in a Saudi population. Methods: Newly diagnosed cases of PH [defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg at right heart cauterization (RHC)] were prospectively collected at a single tertiary care hospital from January 2009 and June 2012. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected at the time of diagnosis, along with hemodynamic parameters. Results: Of the total 264 patients who underwent RHC, 112 were identified as having PH. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.8 ± 15.8 years, and there was a female preponderance of 72.3%. About 88 (78.6%) of the PH patients were native Saudis and 24 (21.4%) had other origins. Twelve PH patients (10.7%) were classified in group 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 7 (6.2%) in group 2 (PH due to left heart disease), 73 (65.2%) in group 3 (PH due to lung disease), 4 (3.6%) in group 4 (chronic thromboembolic PH), and 16 (14.3%) in group 5 (PH due to multifactorial mechanisms). PH associated with diastolic dysfunction was noted in 28.6% of group 2 patients, 31.5% of group 3 patients, and 25% of group 5 patients. Conclusions: These results offer the first report of incident cases of PH across five groups in Saudi Arabia.
  5,919 551 7
Does the patients' educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?
Abdulmalik M Alkatheri, Abdulkareem M Albekairy
April-June 2013, 8(2):105-108
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109823  PMID:23741273
Aims: The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients' knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients' educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center. Methods: The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients' medication knowledge and the pharmacists' performance during counseling. Results: The average age of the participants was 52.9 ± 17.6 years. The participants' education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study ( P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications' side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge ( P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent knowledge of medication side effects compared to only 12.5% for those who did not. Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications' side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.
  4,745 599 15
Detection of premalignant bronchial lesions can be significantly improved by combination of advanced bronchoscopic imaging techniques
Bojan Zaric, Branislav Perin, Vladimir Stojsic, Vladimir Carapic, Jovan Matijasevic, Ilija Andrijevic, Zivka Eri
April-June 2013, 8(2):93-98
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109820  PMID:23741271
Background: The search for the most efficient bronchoscopic imaging tool in detection of early lung cancer is still active. The major aim of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of each bronchoscopic technique and their combination in detection of premalignant bronchial lesions. Methods: This was a prospective trial that enrolled 96 patients with indication for bronchoscopy. Lesions were classified as visually positive if pathological fluorescence was observed under autofluorescence imaging (AFI) videobronchoscopy or dotted, tortuous, and abrupt-ending blood vessels were identified under narrow band imaging (NBI) videobronchoscopy. Squamous metaplasia, mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ (CIS) were regarded as histologically positive lesions. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of white light videobronchoscopy (WLB) in detection of premalignant lesions were 26.5%, 63.9%, 34.4%, and 54.9%, respectively; the corresponding values for AFI were 52%, 79.6%, 64.6%, and 69.9% respectively, for NBI were 66%, 84.6%, 75.4%, 77.7%, respectively, while the values for combination of NBI and AFI were 86.1%, 86.6%, 84.6%, and 88%, respectively. Combination of NBI and AFI significantly improves sensitivity when compared to each individual technique ( P < 0.001). When specificity is of concern, combination of techniques improves specificity of WLB ( P < 0.001) and specificity of AFI ( P = 0.03), but it does not have significant influence on specificity of NBI ( P = 0.53). Conclusion: Combination of NBI and AFI in detection of premalignant bronchial lesions increases both sensitivity and specificity of each technique. However, it seems that NBI is most sufficient and effective in detection of these lesions.
  4,414 530 5
A case of primary mediastinal Ewing's sarcoma /primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting with initial compression of superior vena cava
Alessia Reali, Gianluca Mortellaro, Simona Allis, Edoardo Trevisiol, Silvia Maria Anglesio, Sara Bartoncini, Maria Grazia Ruo Redda
April-June 2013, 8(2):121-123
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109834  PMID:23741276
Ewing's sarcomas and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNETs) are high grade malignant neoplasms. These malignancies are characterized by a chromosome 22 rearrangement, arise from bone or soft tissue, predominantly affect children and young adults, and are grouped in the Ewing family of tumors. Multimodality treatment programs are the treatment of choice. Primary localization of ES/PNET in the mediastinum is extremely rare. We describe a case of ES/PNET presenting as a mediastinal mass with tracheal compression and initial signs of superior vena cava in a 66-year-old woman.
  4,394 514 6
Broncho-vascular fistulas from self-expanding metallic stents: A retrospective case review
Chirag Choudhary, Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Reyadh Salman, Thomas Gildea, Atul Mehta
April-June 2013, 8(2):116-120
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109830  PMID:23741275
To highlight a potentially fatal complication of broncho-vascular fistula arising from the self expanding metallic stent (SEMS) placement. We retrospectively analyzed five patients with benign and malignant airway diseases, who developed tracheo/broncho-vascular fistulas following SEMS placement in our tertiary care setting. All patients received either Wallstent or Ultraflex® stent (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) between 1999 and 2007. All patients had received adjunct therapy such as balloon bronchoplasty, laser therapy or electrocautery. Most patients presented with massive hemoptysis. A total of 483 SEMS were placed during this period. SEMS placement can be complicated by Broncho-vascular fistula formation. True incidence and precise time interval between the insertion of stent and onset of this complication is unknown. Additional therapeutic modalities to maintain stent patency may enhance the risk of fistula formation. SEMS should only be used in a select sub-group of patients, after exhaustive evaluation of other treatment options. These cases provide evidence that broncho-vascular fistulas can develop at any time following SEMS placement, suggesting the need for a more cautious approach, especially while using them for a long term management. In benign airway disease, the stent should be removed as soon as healing has taken place.
  4,159 439 3
Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin followed by consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced unresectable non-small cell lung cancer
Celalettin Eroglu, Okan Orhan, Dilek Unal, Gamze G Dogu, Halit Karaca, Mustafa Dikilitas, Ahmet Oztürk, Metin Ozkan, Bünyamin Kaplan
April-June 2013, 8(2):109-115
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109824  PMID:23741274
Objectives: To evaluate treatment results and toxicities in patients who received concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by consolidation with docetaxel and cisplatin in locally advanced unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Ninety three patients were included in this retrospective study. The patients received 66 Gy radiotherapy and weekly 20 mg/m 2 docetaxel and 20 mg/m 2 cisplatin chemotherapy concomitantly. One month later than the end of CRT, consolidation chemotherapy with four cycles of docetaxel 75 mg/m 2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m 2 were administered at each 21 days. Results: Median age of the patients was 57 (range, 30-74). Following concomitant CRT, 14 patients (15%) showed complete and 50 patients (54%) showed partial response (total response rate was 69%). The median follow-up was 13 months (range: 2-51 months). The median overall survival was 18 months (95% confidential interval [CI]: 13.8-22.1 months); local control was 15 months (95% CI: 9.3-20.6 months); progression-free survival was 9 months (95% CI: 6.5-11.4 months). Esophagitis in eight (9%) patients, neutropenia in seven (8%) patients and pneumonitis in eight (9%) patients developed as grade III-IV toxicity due to concomitant CRT. Conclusion: Concomitant CRT with docetaxel and cisplatin followed by docetaxel and cisplatin consolidation chemotherapy might be considered as a feasible, and well tolerated treatment modality with high response rates despite the fact that it has not a survival advantage in patients with locally advanced unresectable NSCLC.
  4,013 457 2
Prognostic factors for bronchoscopic intervention in advanced lung or esophageal cancer patients with malignant airway obstruction
Jae-Uk Song, Hye Yun Park, Hojoong Kim, Kyeongman Jeon, Sang-Won Um, Won-Jung Koh, Gee Young Suh, Man Pyo Chung, O Jung Kwon
April-June 2013, 8(2):86-92
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109818  PMID:23741270
Context: Bronchoscopic intervention can provide immediate relief from suffocation and an opportunity for additional treatment in patients with malignant airway obstruction. However, few studies have specifically identified prognostic factors affecting the survival of advanced lung or esophageal cancer patients receiving bronchoscopic intervention. Aims: We aimed to investigate prognostic factors influencing survival in these patients. Study Design: We conducted retrospective study. Methods: The clinical parameters were retrospectively reviewed in 51 patients (lung cancer: n = 35; esophageal cancer: n = 16) who underwent palliative bronchoscopic interventions due to malignant airway. Results: Bronchoscopic interventions, such as mechanical removal ( n = 26), stenting ( n = 31), laser cauterization ( n = 19), and ballooning ( n = 16), were performed on intraluminal ( n = 21, 41%), extrinsic ( n = 8, 16%), and combined lesions ( n = 22, 43%). Tracheal invasion was found in 24 patients (47%). Successful palliation was achieved in 49 patients (96%). After the intervention, additional anti-cancer treatment was followed in 24 patients (47%). The median survival time and overall survival rate were 3.4 months and 4%. Survival was increased with selected conditions, including a treatment-naοve status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.359; confidence interval [CI], 0.158-0.815; P = 0.01), an intact proximal airway (HR, 0.265; CI, 0.095-0.738; P = 0.01), and post-procedural additional treatment (HR, 0.330; CI, 0.166-0.657; P < 0.01). Conclusions: Brochoscopic intervention could provide immediate relief and survival improvement in advanced lung or esophageal cancer patients with selected conditions such as a treatment-naοve status, an intact proximal airway, and available post-procedural additional treatment.
  3,844 511 3
Cerebral gas embolism in a case of Influenza A-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation
Christian M Sebat, Timothy E Albertson, Brian M Morrissey
April-June 2013, 8(2):124-126
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109839  PMID:23741277
A 22-year-old obese asthmatic woman with Influenza A (H1N1)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome died from cerebral artery gas emboli with massive cerebral infarction while being treated with High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in the absence of a right to left intracardiac shunt. We review and briefly discuss other causes of systemic gas emboli (SGE). We review proposed mechanisms of SGE, their relation to our case, and how improved understanding of the risk factors may help prevent SGE in positive pressure ventilated patients.
  3,214 361 1
Pulmonary hypertension: Another light in the dark tunnel. Learning the lesson from cancer
Majdy Idrees
April-June 2013, 8(2):69-70
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109813  PMID:23741266
  2,860 536 -
Evaluation of right ventricle with echocardiography: Utility of combined techniques
Emre Yalcinkaya, Baris Bugan, Murat Celik, Uygar Cagdas Yuksel
April-June 2013, 8(2):127-127
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109842  PMID:23741278
  2,413 361 2
Comments on the utility of endorbonchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in mediastinal or hilar lymph node evaluation in extrathoracic malignancy: Benign or malignant?
Asmita Mehta, Kshama Madhavi
April-June 2013, 8(2):128-129
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.109848  PMID:23741280
  2,002 304 1
Author's reply
Majdy M Idrees, Enas Batubara, Tarek Kashour
April-June 2013, 8(2):127-128
  1,748 242 -

April-June 2013, 8(2):85-85
  1,746 237 -
Author reply
Benan Caglayan
April-June 2013, 8(2):129-129
  1,588 256 -
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