Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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   2013| October-December  | Volume 8 | Issue 4  
    Online since September 20, 2013

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Atypical radiological manifestations of thoracic sarcoidosis: A review and pictorial essay
Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Prabhakar Rajiah, Shyam Sunder Koteyar, Carolyn Allen, Ali Nawaz Khan
October-December 2013, 8(4):186-196
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118490  PMID:24250731
Thoracic sarcoidosis is a common disease, with well-described and recognizable radiographic features. Nevertheless, most physicians are not familiar with the rare atypical often-confusing manifestations of thoracic sarcoid. Although these findings have been previously reviewed, but more recent advances in imaging and laboratory science, need to be incorporated. We present a review of literature and illustrate the review with unpublished data, intended to provide a more recent single comprehensive reference to assist with the diagnosis when atypical radiographic findings of thoracic sarcoidosis are encountered. Thoracic involvement accounts for most of morbidity and mortality associated with sarcoidosis. An accurate timely identification is required to minimize morbidity and mortality. It is essential to recognize atypical imaging findings and relate these to clinical manifestations and histology.
  17,771 1,456 9
Pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia: Past, present, and future
Khalid F Al-Mobaireek
October-December 2013, 8(4):181-182
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118473  PMID:24250729
  3,046 10,338 1
Building capacity for quality and safety in critical care: A roundtable discussion from the second international patient safety conference in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Yaseen M Arabi, Saadi Taher, Sean M Berenholtz, Ahmed Alamry, Ra'ed Hijazi, Abdulaleem Alatassi, Abdellatif M Marini
October-December 2013, 8(4):183-185
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118480  PMID:24250730
This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion from the Second International Patient Safety Conference held in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to: (1) review the conceptual framework for building capacity in quality and safety in critical care. (2) examine examples of leading international experiences in building capacity. (3) review the experience in Saudi Arabia in this area. (4) discuss the role of building capacity in simulation for patient safety in critical care and (5) review the experience in building capacity in an ongoing improvement project for severe sepsis and septic shock.
  4,378 2,628 1
Erlotinib in wild type epidermal growth factor receptor non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review
Abdul-Rahman Jazieh, Reem Al Sudairy, Nada Abu-Shraie, Wafaa Al Suwairi, Mazen Ferwana, M Hassan Murad
October-December 2013, 8(4):204-208
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118503  PMID:24250733
Background: Targeting epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) is an innovative approach to managing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which harbors EGFR mutation. However, the efficacy of these agents like erlotinib in patients without the mutation is not known. Methods: This systematic review included Phase III randomized clinical trials that compared single agent erlotinib to other management options in the setting of NSCLC with reported outcome data on patients with EGFR wild type (EGFRWT) tumors. Outcome data include overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR). Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies. Results: Three studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 2044 patients with outcome data on 674 patients with EGFRWT tumors (33%). Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant improvement in OS with erlotinib (hazard ratio of 0.780; 95% confidence interval: 0.654-0.930, P = 0.006). Data were not available to perform PFS or RR analysis. The quality of this evidence is considered to be moderate to high. Conclusion: Our study revealed a significant benefit of erlotinib in patient with EGFRWT tumors compared with other approaches. These findings add another therapeutic option to patients generally considered difficult to treat.
  5,576 917 12
Differences in care between general medicine and respiratory specialists in the management of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Kurugamage Wijayaratne, Jessica Wilson, Pathmanathan Sivakumaran, Krishna B Sriram
October-December 2013, 8(4):197-203
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118499  PMID:24250732
Context: Hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) may be managed by either respiratory specialists (RS) or general medicine physicians (GMP). While previous studies have audited the hospital AECOPD management of RS, only a small number of studies have evaluated the management of GMP. Aims: The aims of this study were to firstly examine the differences in AECOPD management of GMP and RS and secondly compare their care to national COPD guidelines. Methods: A retrospective review was undertaken of consecutive AECOPD patients admitted to two hospitals (one hospital where all AECOPD patients were managed by RS and another where all AECOPD patients were managed by GMP) over a 3-month period. Electronic medical records, medical case notes, pathology and radiology data for the admission were reviewed. Results: There were 201 COPD exacerbations in 169 patients (49.7% male, mean age 72.3). GMP managed 84 (41.7%) exacerbations. In comparison to RS, GMP performed fewer spirometry tests, blood gas analysis and less frequently treated patients with guideline-recommended medications. Referral to pulmonary rehabilitation was poor for both groups of clinicians. Median length of stay was shorter in GMP patients versus RS patients (3 days vs. 5 days, P = 0.001). There were no differences in the 12-month re-admission (41.7% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.664) and mortality rates (10.7% vs. 6%, P = 0.292) between both groups of patients. Conclusion: Our study found differences in the hospital AECOPD management of GMP and RS, but these did not translate into different clinical outcomes between their patients. We also found suboptimal adherence to national COPD guidelines, suggesting that there is scope for improvement in the AECOPD management of both groups of clinicians.
  4,782 671 8
Timing of silicone stent removal in patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis
Jung Seop Eom, Hojoong Kim, Hye Yun Park, Kyeongman Jeon, Sang-Won Um, Won Jung Koh, Gee Young Suh, Man Pyo Chung, O Jung Kwon
October-December 2013, 8(4):218-223
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118504  PMID:24250736
Context: In patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS), the severity of bronchial stenosis affects the restenosis rate after the silicone stent is removed. In PTBS patients with incomplete bronchial obstruction, who had a favorable prognosis, the timing of stent removal to ensure airway patency is not clear. Aims: We evaluated the time for silicone stent removal in patients with incomplete PTBS. Settings and Design: A retrospective study examined PTBS patients who underwent stenting and removal of a silicone stent. Methods: Incomplete bronchial stenosis was defined as PTBS other than total bronchial obstruction, which had a luminal opening at the stenotic segment on bronchoscopic intervention. The duration of stenting was defined as the interval from stent insertion to removal. The study included 44 PTBS patients and the patients were grouped at intervals of 6 months according to the duration of stenting. Results: Patients stented for more than 12 months had a significantly lower restenosis rate than those stented for less than 12 months (4% vs. 35%, P = 0.009). Multiple logistic regression revealed an association between stenting for more than 12 months and a low restenosis rate (odds ratio 12.095; 95% confidence interval 1.097-133.377). Moreover, no restenosis was observed in PTBS patients when the stent was placed more than 14 months previously. Conclusions: In patients with incomplete PTBS, stent placement for longer than 12 months reduced restenosis after stent removal.
  4,611 468 5
Pediatric pulmonary services in Saudi Arabia
Abdullah A Yousef, Abdullah S Al-Shamrani, Sami A Al-Haider, Yazan S Said, Saleh Al Harbi, Adel S Al-Harbi
October-December 2013, 8(4):224-228
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118502  PMID:24250737
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the available pediatric pulmonary services, in terms of workforce, resources, and distribution across Saudi Arabia. This would help in proper utilization of resources and direct future planning. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric pulmonologists registered in the Saudi Thoracic Society. Results: Among 43 practicing pediatric pulmonologist in Saudi Arabia, 29 have responded to the survey (response rate of 67.4%). The majority of practicing pediatric pulmonologists were young graduates with less than 5 years' experience (44.8%) and were North American training programs graduates (69%). The majority of the respondents (51%) were located in Riyadh, 27% in Jeddah, 14% in the Eastern region and 3% in Madinah and Al-Majma'a. Most of the respondents had access to basic diagnostic tools required in the subspecialty, a majority of them (85%) lack dedicated pediatric pulmonary function laboratories. Nearly, 80% of the hospitals performed less than 50 flexible bronchoscopies/year. Conclusion: Pediatric pulmonology is a growing subspecialty in Saudi Arabia with well-trained and experienced physicians. Our study represents an overview of the available pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia, which would help in future planning and better utilization of the available resources.
  4,297 385 1
The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women
Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan, Ahmed Amin Mandil, Amel Ahmed Ahmed, Hayfaa Abdulmajeed Wahabi
October-December 2013, 8(4):214-217
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118505  PMID:24250735
Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO) analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27%) women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73%) self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%), the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%), the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%), and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%). Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.
  3,867 406 3
The relationship between the first episode of wheezing and matrix metalloproteinases-9 and MMP-2 and tissue inhibitors of MMP-1 levels in preterm infants
Rabia Gonul Sezer, Gokhan Aydemir, Abdulkadir Bozaykut, Serdar Hira, Ilhan Asya Tanju, Ömer Özcan
October-December 2013, 8(4):209-213
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118506  PMID:24250734
Aims: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been associated with neonatal lung morbidity and MMP dysregulation contributes to the pathology of chronic and acute lung disorders. Most of the previous studies were performed in the 1 st weeks of life of the preterm newborns. There are no data on the serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 or tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) from preterm infants recovering from lung morbidities. We aimed to compare MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels in preterm and term infants hospitalized with their first episode of wheezing. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 18 preterm infants with a history of chronic lung disease, respiratory distress syndrome or oxygen therapy and 14 age- and sex-matched term infants who were admitted for a first episode of wheezing. We quantified total serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 to assess whether these serum markers levels were associated with the first episode of wheezing in infants with a history of oxygen therapy during the neonatal period. Results: Upon hospitalization, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels were higher in preterm infants than in term infants. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between MMP-9 levels or the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio between preterm and term infants. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for MMP-2 was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.89). The area under the curve for TIMP-1 was 0.78 (95% CI 0.61-0.94). MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels did not correlate with gestational age, gender or severity of wheezing. Conclusion: The negative proportion of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 that we detected in term infants was not present in preterm infants. The balance of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 may have been disrupted by lung damage in the premature infants. Overproduction of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in the serum may be associated with the pathogenesis of wheezing in preterm infants.
  3,760 408 1
Bronchial atresia in a neonate with congenital cytomegalovirus infection
Abdullah A Yousef
October-December 2013, 8(4):231-233
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118497  PMID:24250739
Bronchial atresia (BA) is characterized by a mucus-filled bronchocele in a blind-ending segmental or lobar bronchus with hyperinflation of the obstructed segment of the lung. We describe a neonate who presented on his 9 th day of life with respiratory distress. Chest computed tomography showed a soft tissue density involving the right middle lobe (RML). RML lobectomy confirmed the diagnosis of BA. Cytomegalovirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and tracheal aspirates which may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of BA.
  3,643 376 1
Unusual case of a vanishing bronchus of the left allograft in a lung transplant recipient
Don Hayes, Shaheen Islam, Stephen Kirkby, Thomas J Preston, Peter B Baker
October-December 2013, 8(4):229-230
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118495  PMID:24250738
We present an interesting case of a complete vanishing of the left main bronchus in a lung transplant recipient who had a successful outcome due to acute respiratory support with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in order to perform airway dilation.
  3,270 465 -
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in device closure of atrial septal defect
Hua Cao, Qiang Chen, Gui-Can Zhang, Yun-Nan Hu, Fan Xu
October-December 2013, 8(4):234-235
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.118498  PMID:24250740
  2,763 337 -
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