Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2014| October-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 4  
    Online since September 4, 2014

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Corticosteroids in the treatment of acute asthma
Abdullah A Alangari
October-December 2014, 9(4):187-192
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140120  PMID:25276236
Asthma is a prevalent chronic disease of the respiratory system and acute asthma exacerbations are among the most common causes of presentation to the emergency department (ED) and admission to hospital particularly in children. Bronchial airways inflammation is the most prominent pathological feature of asthma. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), through their anti-inflammatory effects have been the mainstay of treatment of asthma for many years. Systemic and ICS are also used in the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations. Several international asthma management guidelines recommend the use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of moderate to severe acute asthma early upon presentation to the ED. On the other hand, ICS use in the management acute asthma has been studied in different contexts with encouraging results in some and negative in others. This review sheds some light on the role of systemic and ICS in the management of acute asthma and discusses the current evidence behind their different ways of application particularly in relation to new developments in the field.
  54 17,238 3,569
Value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in the differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis
Sinem Iliaz, Raim Iliaz, Gonenc Ortakoylu, Ayse Bahadir, Belma Akbaba Bagci, Emel Caglar
October-December 2014, 9(4):232-235
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140135  PMID:25276243
Introduction: The differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis creates a challange due to tuberculosis also having lung and lymph node involvement. Because both diseases show granulomatous inflammation, it may not be possible to distinguish tuberculosis and sarcoidosis in pathological specimens. As a result of the complexity in the differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, new markers for differentiation are being investigated. Objective: The aim of our study is to investigate the value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a possible marker in differentiating sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: In our study, 51 acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive and/or culture-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, ​​40 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis and a control group consisting of 43 patients were included. In our study, information was collected retrospectively based on hospital records. Results: Leukocyte and neutrophil counts, NLR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher, and albumin was significantly lower in the tuberculosis group compared with sarcoidosis (for all parameters P < 0.001). The most appropriate cut-off value of NLR to distinguish tuberculosis from sarcoidosis was determined as 2.55. For this cut-off value of NLR there was 79% sensitivity, 69% specificity, 73% positive predictive value (PPV), 75% negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.788. For differentiation of sarcoidosis from tuberculosis, accuracy of the NLR test according to this cut-off value was found as 76%. Conclusion: NLR as a little known marker in respiratory medicine was found to be supportive in differentiation of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. More studies on this issue is needed.
  19 5,926 755
Association of compliance of ventilator bundle with incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator utilization among critical patients over 4 years
Majid S Al-Thaqafy, Aiman El-Saed, Yaseen M Arabi, Hanan H Balkhy
October-December 2014, 9(4):221-226
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140132  PMID:25276241
Background: Several studies showed that the implementation of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) ventilator bundle alone or with other preventive measures are associated with reducing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) rates. However, the association with ventilator utilization was rarely examined and the findings were conflicting. The objectives were to validate the bundle association with VAP rate in a traditionally high VAP environment and to examine its association with ventilator utilization. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the adult medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia, between 2010 and 2013. VAP data were collected by a prospective targeted surveillance as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) methodology while bundle data were collected by a cross-sectional design as per IHI methodology. Results: Ventilator bundle compliance significantly increased from 90% in 2010 to 97% in 2013 (P for trend < 0.001). On the other hand, VAP rate decreased from 3.6 (per 1000 ventilator days) in 2010 to 1.0 in 2013 (P for trend = 0.054) and ventilator utilization ratio decreased from 0.73 in 2010 to 0.59 in 2013 (P for trend < 0.001). There were negative significant correlations between the trends of ventilator bundle compliance and VAP rate (cross-correlation coefficients −0.63 to 0.07) and ventilator utilization (cross-correlation coefficients −0.18 to −0.63). Conclusion: More than 70% improvement of VAP rates and approximately 20% improvement of ventilator utilization were observed during IHI ventilator bundle implementation among adult critical patients in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Replicating the current finding in multicenter randomized trials is required before establishing any causal link.
  9 6,347 737
Pulmonary arterial hypertension in Saudi Arabia: Patients' clinical and physiological characteristics and hemodynamic parameters. A single center experience
MM Idrees, K Al-Najashi, A Khan, S Al-Dammas, H Al-Awwad, E Batubara, A Al Otai, J Abdulhameed, A Fayed, T Kashour, SAPH Registry Taskforce
October-December 2014, 9(4):209-215
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140127  PMID:25276239
Aims: The main objective of this study is to describe patients' clinical characteristics and physiological and hemodynamic parameters at the time of diagnosis in a pulmonary hypertension center in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This study reports the results from a single pulmonary hypertension specialized center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, namely Prince Sultan Medical Military City/Cardiac Center (PSMMC & CC). Both newly diagnosed (incidence) and referred (prevalence) cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension are included. All characteristics, including clinical, physiological, and hemodynamic parameters at the time of diagnosis are described. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified as having pulmonary arterial hypertension as diagnosed by right heart catheterization. The mean age at diagnosis was 36 (± 9) years, and there was a female preponderance of 62.6%. The mean duration between symptom onset and diagnosis was 27.8 (± 9.0) months. At the time of enrollment, 56.1% of patients were in functional class III and 16.8% were in functional class IV. Fifty five patients (51.4%) were diagnosed as idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, 29 patients (27.1%) as congenital heart disease associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, 16 patients (15.0%) as connective tissue diseases associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, 4 patients (3.7%) as heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension, and 3 patients (2.8%) as portopulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This data highlights the current situation of pulmonary arterial hypertension in Saudi Arabia. Our patients are much younger than patients described in other international registries but still detected as late in the course of the disease. A majority of patients displays severe functional and hemodynamic compromise.
  8 4,012 572
18F-FDG PET/CT rarely provides additional information other than primary tumor detection in patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors
Ebru Tatci, Ozlem Ozmen, Atila Gokcek, Inci Uslu Biner, Esra Ozaydin, Sadi Kaya, Nuri Arslan
October-December 2014, 9(4):227-231
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140134  PMID:25276242
Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) in detection and staging of pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Methods: A total of 22 patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors (14 typical, 8 atypical) were reviewed in this retrospective study. PET/CT images of all patients were evaluated for primary tumor as well as metastatic regional lymph nodes, bone and other distant metastases. PET/CT positivity of primary tumors was determined by visual interpretation. Tumor size, SUVmax and Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of the tumors were used to test for differences between tumor groups (typical carcinoids and atypical carcinoids). Results: SUVmax of carcinoids ranged from 1.24 to 11.1 (mean, 5.0; median, 2.67). The mean largest diameter of primary tumors was 2.7 ± 1.3 cm, ranging from 1 to 5.5 cm. The overall sensitivity of FDG PET/CT for detection of pulmonary carcinoid tumors was 81.8%. Tumor size, SUVmax and Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of the atypical carcinoids were higher than those for typical carcinoids. However, the results were not statistically meaningful (P > 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET/CT in the detection of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes metastases were 25% and 83% respectively. One patient had bone metastasis. Conclusion: Although FDG PET/CT can be a useful tool for the detection of pulmonary carcinoid tumors and distant metastasis, it cannot discriminate typical carcinoids from atypical ones and absence of an FDG avid lesion cannot exclude pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Moreover, PET/CT is not a reliable tool in the staging of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes especially for those patients with typical carcinoids.
  5 5,810 515
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: A clinical review of 24 patients: Are we right in frequent serologic monitoring?
Subramanian Natarajan, Poonam Subramanian
October-December 2014, 9(4):216-220
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140130  PMID:25276240
Background: Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) is a rare disease characterized by an allergic inflammatory response to the colonization by aspergillus or other fungi in the airways. The aim was to study the clinical, radiological, and serological characteristics of patients of ABPA. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study of patients with breathlessness, chronic cough, blood eosinophilia, and infiltrates on chest X-ray were evaluated with serologic and allergic skin fungal tests using 15 common fungal antigens. Total of 24 patients were diagnosed as ABPA. Results: Total 24 patients, 15 males (62%), 9 females (38%). Age range: 14-70 years, mean 49.13, standard deviation (SD) 14.12. Central bronchiectasis - sixteen patients, bronchocoele - one patient, consolidation - five patients, collapse with mucous plugging with areas of consolidation - three patients, one patient had bronchiectasis, consolidation with hemorrhagic pleural effusion. Fifty-eight percent of patients had received anti-tuberculosis medications prior to diagnosis. Serum total IgE varied from 340 to 18100 IU/mL. Two patients had IgE levels below 1,000 IU/mL. The mean decrease in Serum total IgE levels at the end of 1 month was 26.1% (range: 0.7-71.9%) and at the end of 2 months was 58.9% (range: 11.11-93.26%) (P value of 0.004). Two patients had skin sensitivity to fungal antigens other than aspergillus species. Conclusion: ABPA is a disease with varied clinical, radiological, and serological patterns. Serum IgE monitoring may be done at the end of 2 and 6 months. Further studies are required to simplify the diagnosis and treatment algorithms in resource-limited countries.
  4 4,787 1,396
Pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation during one-lung ventilation in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function
Fei Lin, Linghui Pan, Bin Huang, Lin Ruan, Rui Liang, Wei Qian, Wanyun Ge
October-December 2014, 9(4):203-208
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140125  PMID:25276238
Objective: The aim was to investigate the effects of two different ventilatory strategies: Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Patients and Methods: The patients were enrolled into the study having poor pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s <1.5 L) and undergoing radical resection of pulmonary carcinoma requiring at least 2 h of OLV. Patients were respectively allocated to VCV group and PCV group. The intraoperative data, arterial, and mixed venous blood gases were obtained at baseline, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after OLV and end of surgery. The postoperative data had been recorded and arterial gas measurements were performed at 6, 12 and 24 h after surgery in Intensive Care Unit. Results: Comparison of the VCV group and PCV group, PaO 2 and P(A-a)O 2 were higher and dead space to tidal volume was lower in the PCV group (P < 0.05) after the point of OLV +60, Ppeak was higher in the VCV group (P < 0.05). There were significant advantages in PCV groups with regard to the PaO 2 of three points in postoperation, the duration of postoperative ventilation duration, intensive care duration of stay and the days stay in hospital after surgery. Conclusions: The use of PCV compared with VCV during OLV in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function has significant advantages of intraoperative and postoperative oxygenation and it might be a factor, which can beneficial to postoperative recovery.
  2 6,206 594
Prevalence of sleep-related accidents among drivers in Saudi Arabia
Ahmad S BaHammam, Muath A Alkhunizan, Rabea H Lesloum, Amer M Alshanqiti, Abdulrahman M Aldakhil, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Munir M Sharif
October-December 2014, 9(4):236-241
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140138  PMID:25276244
Introduction: The prevalence of sleepy driving and sleep-related accidents (SRA) varies widely, and no data exist regarding the prevalence of sleepy driving in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and predictors of sleepy driving, near-misses, and SRA among drivers in Saudi Arabia. Materials And Methods: A questionnaire was developed to assess sleep and driving in detail based on previously published data regarding sleepy driving. The questionnaire included 50 questions addressing socio-demographics, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), driving items, and the Berlin Questionnaire. In total, 1,219 male drivers in public places were interviewed face-to-face. Results: The included drivers had a mean age of 32.4 ± 11.7 years and displayed a mean ESS score of 7.2 ± 3.8. Among these drivers, 33.1% reported at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness. Among those who had actual accidents, 11.6% were attributed to sleepiness. In the past six months, drivers reported the following: 25.2% reported falling asleep at least once during, driving and 20.8% had to stop driving at least once because of severe sleepiness. Young age, feeling very sleepy during driving, and having at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness in the past six months were the only predictors of accidents. Conclusion: Sleepy driving is prevalent among male drivers in Saudi Arabia. Near-miss accidents caused by sleepiness are an important risk factor for car accidents and should be considered as a strong warning signal of future accidents.
  2 5,966 441
Pictorial review of intrathoracic manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis
Hamdan AL-Jahdali, Prabhakar Rajiah, Carolyn Allen, Shyam Sunder Koteyar, Ali Nawaz Khan
October-December 2014, 9(4):193-202
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140121  PMID:25276237
Intra-thoracic manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) are not well known particularly the imaging features, which forms the basis of accurate and timely diagnosis. The aim of this study is to familiarize the physicians and radiologists with these features. The diagnosis can remain elusive because of the non-specific nature of symptoms which mimic many common conditions. Thus, the diagnosis of PSS can be missed leading to continuous morbidity if the correct imaging is not pursued. The authors examined the records of rheumatology patient referrals of over a 5 year period. A hundred and seventy patients with systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disorders were chosen for detailed study of the imaging available, which form the basis of this review. The images included conventional chest radiographs, digital radiographs computed radiography (CT) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Where applicable computed pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and radionuclide scans were also interrogated.
  2 8,393 715
Hemoptysis due to pulmonary pseudosequestration secondary to gastro-pulmonary fistula after a revisional bariatric operation
Carlos Cerdán Santacruz, María Conde Rodríguez, Andrés Sánchez-Pernaute, Antonio Josť Torres García
October-December 2014, 9(4):242-244
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140141  PMID:25276245
We report the case of a patient with a history of a complicated revisional bariatric operation who developed a lung pseudosequestration secondary to a gastro-pulmonary fistula. As the patient presented with recurrent hemoptysis, she was initially submitted to embolization of the aberrant vessels and later to a definite operation, which consisted on a diversion of the gastric fistula into a Roux-en-Y intestinal loop. It is an exceptional case about late complications of bariatric surgery, and it underlines the importance of discarding these complications even when the clinical manifestations affect another anatomic region different from the operated abdomen.
  1 3,430 385
Recurrent intrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor: Remarkable response to radiotherapy
Min Liu, Bin Liu, Lihua Dong, Bailong Liu
October-December 2014, 9(4):245-247
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140142  PMID:25276246
Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura (SFTP) is an uncommon neoplasm which grows slowly. For some cases, surgery is warranted. However, for unresectable ones, the standard strategy has not been established yet. We presented a rare case of recurrent malignant intrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor. It was impossible to resect the tumor. Radiotherapy alone achieved a significant improvement effect.
  - 3,932 539
Thoracic ultrasound: Picture worth a thousand sounds
Ajit Moghekar, Atul Mehta
October-December 2014, 9(4):185-186
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.140118  PMID:25276235
  - 3,869 670
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