Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| April-June  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 3, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Poor asthma education and medication compliance are associated with increased emergency department visits by asthmatic children
Saleh Al-Muhsen, Nour Horanieh, Said Dulgom, Zuhair Assiri, Alejandro Vazquez-Tello, Rabih Halwani, Hamdan Al-Jahdali
April-June 2015, 10(2):123-131
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.150735  PMID:25829964
BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma remain a major cause of frequent Emergency Department (ED) visits by pediatric patients. However, other factors including psychosocial, behavioural and educational, are also reportedly associated with repetitive ED visits. Therefore, it is necessary to determine whether such visits are justifiable. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors associated with visits to ED by asthmatic children. METHODS: Asthmatic children (n = 297) between 1-17 years old were recruited and information collected at the time of visiting an ED facility at two major hospitals. RESULTS: Asthmatic patients visited the ED 3.9 ΁ 3.2 times-per-year, on average. Inadequately controlled asthma was perceived in 60.3% of patients. The majority of patients (56.4%) reported not receiving education about asthma. Patients reflected misconceptions about the ED department, including the belief that more effective treatments are available (40.9%), or that the ED staff is better qualified (27.8%). About half of patients (48.2%) visited the ED because of the convenience of being open 24 hours, or because they are received immediately (38.4%). Uncontrolled asthma was associated with poor education about asthma and/or medication use. Patients educated about asthma, were less likely to stop corticosteroid therapy when their symptoms get better (OR:0.55; 95% CI:0.3-0.9; P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: This study reports that most patients had poor knowledge about asthma and were using medications improperly, thus suggesting inefficient application of management action plan. Unnecessary and frequent visits to the ED for asthma care was associated with poor education about asthma and medication use. Potential deficiencies of the health system at directing patients to the proper medical facility were uncovered and underline the necessity to improve education about the disease and medication compliance of patients and their parents/guardians.
  22 7,704 768
REVIEW ARTICLES
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of exertional dyspnea
Debapriya Datta, Edward Normandin, Richard ZuWallack
April-June 2015, 10(2):77-86
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.151438  PMID:25829957
Dyspnea on exertion is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. It is usually investigated by resting tests such as pulmonary function tests and echocardiogram, which may at times can be non-diagnostic. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) measures physiologic parameters during exercise which can enable accurate identification of the cause of dyspnea. Though CPET has been around for decades and provides valuable and pertinent physiologic information on the integrated cardiopulmonary responses to exercise, it remains underutilized. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensible overview of the underlying principles of exercise physiology, indications and contraindications of CPET, methodology and interpretative strategies involved and thereby increase the understanding of the insights that can be gained from the use of CPET.
  15 10,736 2,157
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Factors associated with poor asthma control in the outpatient clinic setting
Jamaan M Al-Zahrani, Anwar Ahmad, Abdullah AL-Harbi, Ayaz M Khan, Bader Al-Bader, Salim Baharoon, Abdullah AL Shememeri, Hamdan AL-Jahdali
April-June 2015, 10(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.152450  PMID:25829960
  14 5,317 642
Reliability and validity of an arabic version of the dyspnea-12 questionnaire for Saudi nationals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Mohammed M Alyami, Sue C Jenkins, Hani Lababidi, Kylie Hill
April-June 2015, 10(2):112-117
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.150730  PMID:25829962
BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is a distressing symptom experienced by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The dyspnea-12 (D-12) questionnaire comprises of 12 items and assesses the quality of this symptom, its severity and the emotional response. The original (English) version of the D-12 is reliable and valid for the measurement of dyspnea in pulmonary diseases. AIM: To translate the D-12 into Arabic and determine whether this version is reliable and valid in Saudi nationals with COPD. METHODS: The D-12 was translated into Arabic version and reviewed by an expert panel before being back-translated into English. The Arabic version was administered to five patients with COPD to test whether it was easily understood after which a final Arabic version was produced. Thereafter, 40 patients with COPD (aged 63 ΁ 9 years; 33 [82.5%] males; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) 47 ΁ 16% predicted) completed the D-12, the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ). Lung function and 6-minute walk distance were also measured. The D-12 was re-administered two weeks later. RESULTS: The Arabic version of the D-12 demonstrated good reliability over the two administration (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94, P = 0.01). Strong associations were demonstrated between the (1) total score for the D-12 and the CAT, (2) quality sub-score of the D-12 and the CAT and (3) emotional response sub-score of the D-12 and emotional function domain of the CRDQ (r ≥ 0.6, all P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of the D-12 is a reliable and valid instrument in Saudi nationals with COPD.
  9 4,479 481
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity is associated with severe pneumonia
Jung Seop Eom, Won Jun Song, Hongseok Yoo, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Ho Yun Lee, Won-Jung Koh, Kyeongman Jeon, Hye Yun Park
April-June 2015, 10(2):105-111
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.151441  PMID:25829961
CONTEXT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder, and various aspects of COPD may be associated with the severity of pneumonia in such patients. AIMS: We examined the risk factors associated with severe pneumonia in a COPD population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study using a prospectively collected database of pneumonia patients who were admitted to our hospital through emergency department between 2008 and 2012. Patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and those with an immunocompromised status were excluded. RESULTS: Of 148 pneumonia patients with COPD for whom chest computed tomography (CT) scans were available, 106 (71.6%) and 42 (28.4%) were classified as non-severe and severe pneumonia, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the severity of airflow limitation [odds ratio (OR), 2.751; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.074-7.050; P = 0.035] and the presence of emphysema on a chest CT scan (OR, 3.366; 95% CI, 1.104-10.265; P = 0.033) were independently associated with severe pneumonia in patients with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD including the airflow limitation grade and the presence of pulmonary emphysema were independently associated with the development of severe pneumonia.
  5 4,285 608
CASE REPORTS
A case of near fatal asthma: The role of ECMO as rescue therapy
Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Hadil A Al Otair, Syed Moazzum Khurshid, Sherif El Badrawy, Bakir M Bakir
April-June 2015, 10(2):143-145
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.152461  PMID:25829967
  4 3,870 621
Clinical description of human bocavirus viremia in children with LRTI, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
Dalal K Bubshait, Waleed Hamad Albuali, Abdullah A Yousef, Obeid Eltreifi Obeid, Khaled R Alkharsah, Manal Ismaeel Hassan, Chittibabu Vatte, Alhusain J Alzahrani, Huda Bukhari
April-June 2015, 10(2):146-149
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.151437  PMID:25829968
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a major etiology of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young children. We tested 149 patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University with diagnosis of LRTI. Viremia caused by the different studied viruses was detected in 31.5% of the total cases by Real-time Polymerase chain reaction. We report five patients who were positive for HBoV in serum samples. Clinical presentation ranged from mild to severe disease as one of them required admission to intensive care unit. Wheezing was a striking feature in most of our patients, but fever was not a consistent finding.
  4 3,746 411
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prognostic value of serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels in critically ill patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia
Hakan Tanriverdi, Müge Meltem Tor, Levent Kart, Remzi Altin, Figen Atalay, Vildan SumbSümbüloglu
April-June 2015, 10(2):137-142
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.151442  PMID:25829966
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients. We sought to determine the prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) kinetics in critically ill patients who developed VAP. METHODS: Patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and developed VAP were eligible. Patients were followed for 28 days after the pneumonia diagnosis and blood samples for PCT and CRP were collected on the day of the pneumonia diagnosis (D0), and days 3 (D3) and 7 (D7) after the diagnosis. Patients were grouped as survivors and non-survivors, and the mean PCT and CRP values and their kinetics were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 45 patients were enrolled. Of them, 22 (48.8%) died before day 28 after the pneumonia diagnosis. There was no significant difference between the survivor and non-survivor groups in terms of PCT on the day of pneumonia diagnosis or CRP levels at any point. However, the PCT levels days 3 and 7 were significantly higher in the non-survivor group than the survivor group. Whereas PCT levels decreased significantly from D0 to D7 in the survivor group, CRP did not. A PCT level above 1 ng/mL on day 3 was the strongest predictor of mortality, with an odds ratio of 22.6. CONCLUSION: Serum PCT was found to be a superior prognostic marker compared to CRP in terms of predicting mortality in critically ill patients who developed VAP. The PCT level on D3 was the strongest predictor of mortality in VAP.
  3 4,693 719
The association between glucose levels and hospital outcomes in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Ebtesam A Islam, Chok Limsuwat, Teerapat Nantsupawat, Gilbert G Berdine, Kenneth M Nugent
April-June 2015, 10(2):94-99
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.151439  PMID:25829959
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations can cause hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients, and hyperglycemia may be associated with increased mortality, length of stay (LOS), and re-admissions in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We did three retrospective studies using charts from July 2008 through June 2009, January 2006 through December 2010, and October 2010 through March 2011. We collected demographic and clinical information, laboratory results, radiographic results, and information on LOS, mortality, and re-admission. RESULTS: Glucose levels did not predict outcomes in any of the studied cohorts, after adjustment for covariates in multivariable analysis. The first database included 30 patients admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital beds. Six of 20 non-diabetic patients had peak glucoses above 200 mg/dl. Nine of the ten diabetic patients had peak glucoses above 200 mg/dl. The maximum daily corticosteroid dose had no apparent effect on the glucose levels. The second database included 217 patients admitted to ICUs. The initial blood glucose was higher in patients who died than those who survived using bivariate analysis (P = 0.015; odds ratio, OR, 1.01) but not in multivariable analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that glucose levels did not affect LOS. The third database analyzing COPD re-admission rates included 81 patients; the peak glucose levels were not associated with re-admission. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that COPD patients treated with corticosteroids developed significant hyperglycemia, but the increase in blood glucose levels did not correlate with the maximum dose of corticosteroids. Blood glucose levels were not associated with mortality, LOS, or re-admission rates.
  3 5,296 654
Determinants of functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock: One-year follow-up
Mustafa S Al Khalaf, Fatimah H Al Ehnidi, Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Hani M Tamim, Noorizan Abd-Aziz, Balamurugan Tangiisuran, Yahaya Hassan, Yaseen M Arabi
April-June 2015, 10(2):132-136
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.150731  PMID:25829965
RATIONALE: Sepsis is a leading cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist regarding the outcomes and functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock a year after hospital discharge. METHODS: Adult patients admitted between April 2007 and March 2010 to the medical-surgical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ICU database was investigated for patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock. Survival status was determined based on hospital discharge. Patients who required re-admission, stayed in ICU for less than 24 hours, had incomplete data were all excluded. Survivors were interviewed through phone calls to determine their functional status one-year post-hospital discharge using Karnofsky performance status scale. RESULTS: A total of 209 patients met the eligibility criteria. We found that 38 (18.1%) patients had severe disability before admission, whereas 109 (52.2%) patients were with severe disability or died one-year post-hospital discharge. Only one-third of the survivors had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). After adjustment of baseline variables, age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.04] and pre-sepsis functional status of severe disability (aOR = 50.9, 95% CI = 6.82-379.3) were found to be independent predictors of functional status of severe disability one-year post-hospital discharge among survivors. CONCLUSIONS: We found that only one-third of the survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). Age and pre-sepsis severe disability were the factors that highly predicted the level of functional status one-year post-hospital discharge.
  2 4,077 473
Excessive dynamic airway collapse in a small cohort of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients
C Represas-Represas, V Leiro-Fernandez, R Mallo-Alonso, MI Botana-Rial, A Tilve-Gomez, A Fernandez-Villar
April-June 2015, 10(2):118-122
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.150733  PMID:25829963
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of EDAC (Excessive Dynamic Airway Collapse) has not been studied specifically in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EDAC in COPD and to determine whether there are clinical factors or functional variables that could influence the degree of expiratory collapse of central airways. METHODS: Prospective observational study of a group of patients with COPD. The degree of tracheobronchial collapse was evaluated by low-dose dynamic airway computed tomography (CT). We recorded clinical and pulmonary function tests data, quality of life and BODE index. RESULTS: This study included 53 patients with COPD, 46 (87%) males, mean age 65 (SD, 9) years. The percentage of collapse at each anatomic level was as follows: Aortic arch, 16.1% (SD, 13.6%); carina, 19.4% (SD, 15.9%); and bronchus intermedius, 21.7% (SD, 16.1%). At the point of maximal collapse, the percentage of collapse was 26.8% (SD, 16%). EDAC was demonstrated at any of the three anatomical points in five patients, corresponding to 9.4% (95% CI, 3.1% to 20.6%) of the sample and affecting the three anatomical points in only two cases. A statistically significant correlation was only found with the total lung capacity (TLC). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of EDAC observed in a sample of patients with different levels of COPD severity is low. The degree of dynamic central airway collapse was not related to the patient's epidemiological or clinical features, and did not affect lung function, symptoms, capacity for effort, or quality of life.
  2 4,648 426
REVIEW ARTICLES
Lights and shadows of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations
Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Luis Jara-Palomares, Xavier Muñoz, Víctor Bustamante, Esther Barreiro
April-June 2015, 10(2):87-93
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.151440  PMID:25829958
Despite the overwhelming evidence justifying the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for providing ventilatory support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, recent studies demonstrated that its application in real-life settings remains suboptimal. European clinical audits have shown that 1) NIV is not invariably available, 2) its availability depends on countries and hospital sizes, and 3) numerous centers declare their inability to provide NIV to all of the eligible patients presenting throughout the year. Even with an established indication, the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbations faces important challenges. First, the location and personnel using NIV should be carefully selected. Second, the use of NIV is not straightforward despite the availability of technologically advanced ventilators. Third, NIV therapy of critically ill patients requires a thorough knowledge of both respiratory physiology and existing ventilatory devices. Accordingly, an optimal team-training experience, the careful selection of patients, and special attention to the selection of devices are critical for optimizing NIV outcomes. Additionally, when applied, NIV should be closely monitored, and endotracheal intubation should be promptly available in the case of failure. Another topic that merits careful consideration is the use of NIV in the elderly. This patient population is particularly fragile, with several physiological and social characteristics requiring specific attention in relation to NIV. Several other novel indications should also be critically examined, including the use of NIV during fiberoptic bronchoscopy or transesophageal echocardiography, as well as in interventional cardiology and pulmonology. The present narrative review aims to provide updated information on the use of NIV in acute settings to improve the clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations.
  - 5,566 1,059
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