Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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   2017| October-December  | Volume 12 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 10, 2017

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Saudi lung cancer management guidelines 2017
AR Jazieh on Behalf of Saudi Lung Cancer Guidelines Association - Saudi Lung Cancer Guidelines Members , Abdul Rahman Jazieh, Khaled Al Kattan, Ahmed Bamousa, Ashwaq Al Olayan, Ahmed Abdelwarith, Jawaher Ansari, Abdullah Al Twairqi, Turki Al Fayea, Khalid Al Saleh, Hamed Al Husaini, Nafisa Abdelhafiez, Mervat Mahrous, Medhat Faris, Ameen Al Omair, Adnan Hebshi, Salem Al Shehri, Foad Al Dayel, Hanaa Bamefleh, Walid Khalbuss, Sarah Al Ghanem, Shukri Loutfi, Azzam Khankan, Meshael Al Rujaib, Majed Al Ghamdi, Nagwa Ibrahim, Abdulmonem Swied, Mohammad Al Kayait, Marie Datario
October-December 2017, 12(4):221-246
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_92_17  PMID:29118855
Background: Lung cancer management is getting more complex due to the rapid advances in all aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic options. Developing guidelines is critical to help practitioners provide standard of care. Methods: The Saudi Lung Cancer Guidelines Committee (SLCGC) multidisciplinary members from different specialties and from various regions and healthcare sectors of the country reviewed and updated all lung cancer guidelines with appropriate labeling of level of evidence. Supporting documents to help healthcare professionals were developed. Results: Detailed lung cancer management guidelines were finalized with appropriate resources for systemic therapy and short reviews highlighting important issues. Stage based disease management recommendation were included. A summary explanation for complex topics were included in addition to tables of approved systemic therapy. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary lung cancer guidelines was developed and will be disseminated across the country.
  6,909 448 5
Thromboprophylaxis and mortality among patients who developed venous thromboembolism in seven major hospitals in Saudi Arabia
Fahad M Al-Hameed, Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Abdulelah I Qadhi, Amira Shaker, Farjah H Al-Gahtani, Fawzi F Al-Jassir, Galila F Zahir, Tarig S Al-Khuwaitir, Mohammed H Addar, Mohamed S Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed A Abdelaal, Essam Y Aboelnazar
October-December 2017, 12(4):282-289
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_101_17  PMID:29118862
Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) during hospitalization is a serious and potentially fatal condition. Despite its effectiveness, evidence-based thromboprophylaxis is still underutilized in many countries including Saudi Arabia. Objective of the Study: Our objectives were to determine how often hospital-acquired VTE patients received appropriate thromboprophylaxis, VTE-associated mortality, and the percentage of patients given anticoagulant therapy and adherence to it after discharged. Methods: This study was conducted in seven major hospitals in Saudi Arabia. From July 1, 2009, till June 30, 2010, all recorded deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) cases were noted. Only patients with confirmed VTE diagnosis were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 1241 confirmed VTE cases occurred during the 12-month period. Most (58.3%) of them were DVT only, 21.7% were PE, and 20% were both DVT and PE. 21.4% and 78.6% of confirmed VTE occurred in surgical and medical patients, respectively. Only 40.9% of VTE cases received appropriate prophylaxis (63.2% for surgical patients and 34.8% for medical patients; P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 14.3% which represented 1.6% of total hospital deaths. Mortality was 13.5% for surgical patients and 14.5% for medical patients (P > 0.05). Appropriate thromboprophylaxis was associated with 4.11% absolute risk reduction in mortality (95% confidence interval: 0.24%–7.97%). Most (89.4%) of the survived patients received anticoagulation therapy at discharge and 71.7% of them were adherent to it on follow-up. Conclusion: Thromboprophylaxis was underutilized in major Saudi hospitals denoting a gap between guideline and practice. This gap was more marked in medical than surgical patients. Hospital-acquired VTE was associated with significant mortality. Efforts to improve thromboprophylaxis utilization are warranted.
  4,683 319 9
Sleep disturbances and memory impairment among pregnant women consuming khat: An under-recognized problem
Md. Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Peter Sony, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Adam Moscovitch, Ahmed S Bahammam
October-December 2017, 12(4):247-251
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_24_17  PMID:29118856
Khat (Catha edulis) is a evergreen flowering shrub that is cultivated at high altitudes, especially in East Africa and the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. The plant contains alkaloids, of which cathinone and cathine have structural similarity and pharmacological action similar to amphetamines. The leaves are, therefore, consumed in some regions as a psychoactive stimulant due to cultural beliefs and misperceptions on the health benefits of khat consumption. This resulted in a growing prevalence of khat consumption among pregnant women. The myriad of physiological changes associated with pregnancy impairs sleep and memory. Moreover, khat has also been shown to have adverse effects on memory and sleep. Therefore, its use during pregnancy may further aggravate those impairments. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize the changes in sleep and memory during pregnancy and the evidence supporting a relationship between khat consumption and neurocognitive deficits and sleep dysfunctions. The misperceptions of beneficial effects of khat, the high prevalence of consumption among pregnant women, and the possibility of under-reporting of khat abuse do necessitate the development of alternative methodologies to identify cases of unreported khat abuse in pregnant women. It is proposed that screening for sleep problems and memory deficits may help identify under-reported cases of khat abuse in pregnant women.
  4,557 379 5
Saudi lung cancer management guidelines 2017: Improving lung cancer care in Saudi region
Christian Rolfo, Christoph C Zielinski
October-December 2017, 12(4):219-220
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_225_17  PMID:29118854
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Characteristics and predictors of mortality of patients with hematologic malignancies requiring invasive mechanical ventilation
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Haya Al Orainni, Faten Al Eid, Haytham Tlayjeh, Abedalrahman Itani, Ayman Al Hejazi, Yaseen M Arabi
October-December 2017, 12(4):259-265
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_21_17  PMID:29118858
Rationale: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) may complicate the course of hematologic malignancies (HMs). Our objective was to study the characteristics, outcomes and predictors of mortality of patients with HMs who required intubation for ARF. Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients with HMs who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of King Abdul-Aziz Medical City-Riyadh between 2008 and 2013 and required invasive mechanical ventilation. We noted their baseline characteristics, treatments and different outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate predictors of hospital mortality. Results: During the 6-year period, 190 patients with HMs were admitted to the ICU and 122 (64.2%) required intubation for ARF. These patients had mean age of 57.2 ± 19.3 years and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 28.0 ± 7.8 and were predominantly males (63.4%). Lymphoma (44.3%) and acute leukemia (38.5%) were the most common hematologic malignancy. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was tried in 22 patients (18.0%) but failed. The code status was changed to “Do-Not-Resuscitate” for 39 patients (32.0%) during ICU stay. Hospital mortality was 70.5% and most deaths (81.4%) occurred in the ICU. The mortality of patients with “Do-Not-Resuscitate” status was 97.4%. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, male gender (odds ratio (OR), 6.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.24–20.30), septic shock (OR, 6.61; 95% CI, 1.93–22.66) were independent mortality predictors. Remission status, non-NIV failure and chemotherapy during ICU stay were not associated with mortality. Conclusions: Patients with HMs requiring intubation had high mortality (70.5%). Male gender and presence of septic shock were independent predictors of mortality.
  3,905 360 7
Rituximab treatment in patients with systemic sclerosis and interstitial lung disease
Abdel Gaffar A Mohammed, Ammar Alshihre, Ibrahim Abdulrazag Al-Homood
October-December 2017, 12(4):294-297
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_30_17  PMID:29118864
There is increasing interest in rituximab (RTX) as an alternative to cyclophosphamide for the treatment of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, no report has addressed its efficacy in Saudi patients with SSc-ILD. To assess the efficacy of RTX treatment in Saudi patients with SSc-ILD, hospital records were reviewed between 2013 and 2016. Four female patients received at least 4 cycles of RTX (I cycle, consisting of two infusions of 1000 mg 2 weeks apart). Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed before and after treatment to assess the response. HRCT revealed improvement in one patient, stable disease in two patients, and worsening in one patient. Moreover, RTX prevented the further decline of forced vital capacity significantly in PFT. These results provide further evidence that RTX is an effective treatment for SSc-ILD.
  3,636 470 9
A novel cystic fibrosis gene mutation c.2490insT in a Palestinian patient: A case report and review of the literature
Hassan Chami, Samer Abou Arbid, Rebecca Badra, Chantal Farra
October-December 2017, 12(4):290-293
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_76_17  PMID:29118863
We report the case of a 19-year-old male patient of Palestinian descent, who presented with a 1-year history of recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infections, weight loss, chronic diarrhea, and a normal chloride sweat test. A panel for common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations test was also negative. Cystic fibrosis (CF) was still clinically suspected thus, full CFTR gene sequencing was performed, which revealed a homozygous unreported mutation c.2490insT (GenBank accession number: BankIt2019289 seq1 MF167456). Both parents were also found to be heterozygous for this mutation. This case highlights the importance of clinical evaluation and the need for extensive genetic investigation when dealing with a genetic disease with wide variability in a clinical presentation such as CF.
  3,847 253 -
Pleuropulmonary manifestation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia
Omer S. B. Alamoudi, Suzan Mansour Attar
October-December 2017, 12(4):266-271
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_392_16  PMID:29118859
Background and Objectives: Pleuropulmonary (PP) involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, limited data are available regarding lung complications in the Middle East, especially in Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the current study were to determine the prevalence of PP manifestations and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 419 patients diagnosed at a tertiary center over a 12.5-year period. The frequency of pulmonary manifestations was recorded based on combined results from chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, and high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest. Results: The overall frequency of lung involvement was 25.8%. Pneumonia, bronchiectasis, and interstitial lung disease were the most common abnormalities (36%, 35%, and 23%, respectively). The presence of comorbid illness (odds ratio [OR]: 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.02–5.1), male gender (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3–4.24), and the presence of extra-articular manifestations of RA (ExRA) (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 0.4–4.01) were predictive of lung involvement. Conclusions: Pneumonia, bronchiectasis, and interstitial lung disease were the most common abnormalities seen in RA patients. The presence of comorbidity, male gender, and ExRA was significantly associated with lung involvement.
  3,729 370 7
Lung granuloma: A clinicopathologic study of 158 cases
Abdullah Al-Harbi, Salman Al-Otaibi, Abdelmonim Abdulrahman, Fares Al-Jahdali, Fahad Al-Harbi, Hana Bamefleh, Majed Gamdi, Hamdan Al-Jahdali
October-December 2017, 12(4):278-281
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_1_17  PMID:29118861
Background and Aims: A granuloma is a common pathological diagnosis in lung biopsies and is caused by a variety of etiologies. The aim of this study was to assess the etiology and frequency of different cases of lung granulomas. Methods: The medical records of all patients who had lung granulomas between 2005 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the histological features of the granulomas, along with the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings, an attempt was made to identify the etiology of the granuloma in each case. Results: A total of 158 patients with lung biopsy specimens showing lung granulomas were identified. The histological findings revealed necrotizing granulomas in 92 (58%) of the cases and nonnecrotizing granulomas in 66 (42%). A definite etiology was determined in 133 cases (84%), whereas in 26 cases (16%), the etiology could not be identified despite an extensive workup. Infection was the most frequent cause of granuloma, accounting for 105 cases (66%). Mycobacterial tuberculosis (TB) was the type of infection that caused the largest number of granulomas, and was responsible for 100 cases (63%). Among the noninfectious etiologies of lung granuloma, sarcoidosis was the most common cause, accounting for 20 (13%) of the cases. Conclusions: Mycobacterial TB and sarcoidosis are the most common causes of lung granulomas in our region. In a substantial proportion of cases, the cause may not be identified despite an extensive workup.
  3,664 378 7
Analysis of predictive parameters for the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis
Toru Yamagishi, Norio Kodaka, Yoshiyuki Kurose, Kayo Watanabe, Chihiro Nakano, Kumiko Kishimoto, Takeshi Oshio, Kumiko Niitsuma, Hiroto Matsuse
October-December 2017, 12(4):252-258
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_355_16  PMID:29118857
Introduction: Prevention and effective treatment of radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP) could facilitate greater use of radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical parameters useful for early prediction of RP. Methods: Blood sampling, pulmonary function testing, chest computed tomography, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in patients with pathologically confirmed lung cancer who had completed ≥60 Gy of RT, at baseline, shortly after RT, and at 1 month posttreatment. Results: By 3 months post-RT, 11 patients developed RP (RP group) and the remaining 11 patients did not (NRP group). RT significantly increased total cell counts and alveolar macrophages in BAL of the NRP group, whereas lymphocyte count was increased in both groups. Matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) increased and vascular endothelial growth factor decreased significantly in the BAL fluid (BALF) of the RP group following RT. Serum surfactant protein D (SP-D) increased significantly in the NRP group. SP-D in BALF from the RP group increased significantly with a subsequent increase in serum SP-D. Pulmonary dilution decreased similarly in both groups of patients. Conclusions: Increased SP-D in BALF, rather than that in serum, could be useful biomarkers in predicting RP. The MMP-9 in BALF might play a role in the pathogenesis of RP. Pulmonary dilution test may not be predictive of the development of RP.
  3,287 339 3
Coronary flow reserve is impaired in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
Serife Savas Bozbas, Serpil Eroglu, Berna Akinci Ozyurek, Fusun Oner Eyuboglu
October-December 2017, 12(4):272-277
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_195_16  PMID:29118860
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in adult populations. Accumulating data indicate that it is independently associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases and has prognostic importance in affected cases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with OSA and controls. Methods: Sixty-one patients undergoing an overnight polysomnography were enrolled in this study. Patients with an apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) >5 were accepted as OSA group (n = 45) and those with an AHI <5 were taken as controls (n = 16). Using Doppler echocardiography at baseline and following dipyridamole infusion, coronary peak flow velocities were obtained. CFR was calculated as the ratio of peak diastolic flow to baseline diastolic flow. A CFR value <2 was accepted as impaired coronary microvascular function. Results: The mean age was 50.8 ± 10.8 years, of which 16 (26.2%) were female. Both groups had similar features with regard to demographic and clinical variables. The mean value of CFR was significantly lower in patients with OSA compared to those controls (2.24 ± 0.46 vs. 2.74 ± 0.62, respectively, P = 0.001). An abnormal CFR value was observed in 12 (26.7%) patients with OSA and in 1 (6.3%) participant in control group. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that CFR, an indicator of coronary microvascular function, is significantly impaired in patients with OSA. Coronary microvascular function, an early sign of atherosclerosis, can be evaluated noninvasively in these patients might be used as a predictor of cardiovascular risk.
  3,128 295 4
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