Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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   2020| October-December  | Volume 15 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 10, 2020

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Ventilator dyssynchrony – Detection, pathophysiology, and clinical relevance: A Narrative review
Peter D Sottile, David Albers, Bradford J Smith, Marc M Moss
October-December 2020, 15(4):190-198
Mortality associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome remains unacceptably high due in part to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Ventilator dyssynchrony is defined as the inappropriate timing and delivery of a mechanical breath in response to patient effort and may cause VILI. Such deleterious patient–ventilator interactions have recently been termed patient self-inflicted lung injury. This narrative review outlines the detection and frequency of several different types of ventilator dyssynchrony, delineates the different mechanisms by which ventilator dyssynchrony may propagate VILI, and reviews the potential clinical impact of ventilator dyssynchrony. Until recently, identifying ventilator dyssynchrony required the manual interpretation of ventilator pressure and flow waveforms. However, computerized interpretation of ventilator waive forms can detect ventilator dyssynchrony with an area under the receiver operating curve of >0.80. Using such algorithms, ventilator dyssynchrony occurs in 3%–34% of all breaths, depending on the patient population. Moreover, two types of ventilator dyssynchrony, double-triggered and flow-limited breaths, are associated with the more frequent delivery of large tidal volumes >10 mL/kg when compared with synchronous breaths (54% [95% confidence interval (CI), 47%–61%] and 11% [95% CI, 7%–15%]) compared with 0.9% (95% CI, 0.0%–1.9%), suggesting a role in propagating VILI. Finally, a recent study associated frequent dyssynchrony-defined as >10% of all breaths-with an increase in hospital mortality (67 vs. 23%, P = 0.04). However, the clinical significance of ventilator dyssynchrony remains an area of active investigation and more research is needed to guide optimal ventilator dyssynchrony management.
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Framework for curriculum delivery during COVID-19 pandemic in a health sciences university
Hanan M Al-Kadri, Mohamed Al Moamary, Bandar Al Knawy
October-December 2020, 15(4):185-189
This article aims to shed light on the management that was taken by the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences to accommodate the immediate needs for online curriculum delivery, in response to the total lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic. We have described the process done, actions implemented, and challenges faced to manage the curriculum delivery during the pandemic and to plan the subsequent year curriculum delivery. Effective management will be enhanced by focused faculty development, curriculum management, assessment planning, and technical support. We believe that the management done can be taken as a model in similar situations where sudden online curriculum delivery is deemed necessary. Further audit on the effectiveness and implication of these actions is required after the end of the pandemic.
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Prevalence of sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and utility of global sleep assessment questionnaire: An observational case–control study
Sameer Vaidya, Dipti Gothi, Mahismita Patro
October-December 2020, 15(4):230-237
INTRODUCTION: Although sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common, no study has comprehensively evaluated sleep disorders in COPD, and there are no screening tools available for COPD patients. Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ) is one of the best screening tools for the general population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aims and objectives of the study were to find (i) the prevalence of sleep disorders in COPD based on GSAQ score; (ii) if the GSAQ score in COPD is high compared to healthy adult population; (iii) the prevalence of insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), restless leg syndrome (RLS), and depression in COPD patients; and (iv) the sensitivity and specificity of GSAQ. METHODS: This was a prospective case–control study where GSAQ is administered to 100 stable COPD and 50 healthy individuals. The presence of sleep disorder in COPD was further confirmed based on the diagnostic criteria and polysomnography. RESULTS: GSAQ was positive in 68% of the COPD patients compared to 16% of the matched healthy adults (P < 0.001). The sleep disturbance was confirmed in 66 COPD patients. Insomnia, OSA, RLS, depression/anxiety, and overlap of two or more disorder were seen in 39, 13, 30, 22, and 31 patients, respectively. The overall sensitivity/specificity of GSAQ for sleep disturbances in COPD was 90.9%/70.58%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of GSAQ for insomnia, OSA, RLS, and anxiety/depression was 87/75%, 77/67%, 90/80%, and 91/65%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Sleep disorders in COPD patients are significantly high. GSAQ is a good screening tool for detecting the presence of disturbed sleep in COPD. Overlap of two or more sleep disorders is common in COPD.
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Low-dose radiation therapy for coronavirus disease-2019 pneumonia: Is it time to look beyond apprehensions?
Badri Narain Pandey
October-December 2020, 15(4):199-207
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health crisis. Mortality associated with COVID-19 is characterized mainly by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, pneumonia, and respiratory failure. The pathogenesis of the disease is known to be associated with pro-inflammatory processes after virus infection. Hence, various therapeutic strategies are being developed to control the inflammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Recently, low-dose radiation therapy (LDRT) has been suggested for the treatment of pneumonia/ADRS in COVID-19 patients through irradiation of lungs by gamma/X-ray. In this direction, a few clinical trials have also been initiated. However, a few recent publications have raised some concerns regarding LDRT, especially about possibilities of activation/aggressiveness of virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in case of COVID-19), lung injury and risk of second cancer after low-dose therapy. The present manuscript is an attempt to analyze these apprehensions based on cited references and other available literature, including some from our laboratory. At this point, LDRT may be not the first line of therapy. However, based on existing anti-inflammatory evidence of LDRT, it needs encouragement as an adjuvant therapy and for more multi-centric clinical trials. In addition, it would be worth combining LDRT with other anti-inflammatory therapies, which would open avenues for multi-modal therapy of pneumonia/ARDS in COVID-19 patients. The mode of irradiation (local lung irradiation or whole-body irradiation) and the window period after infection of the virus, need to be optimized using suitable animal studies for effective clinical outcomes of LDRT. However, considering ample evidence, it is time to look beyond the apprehensions if a low dose of radiation could be exploited for better management of COVID-19 patients.
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Clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Esam H Alhamad, Joseph G Cal, Nuha N Alrajhi, Waleed M Aharbi, Ammar C AlRikabi, Ahmad A AlBoukai
October-December 2020, 15(4):208-214
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a common subtype of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Information about the associated comorbidities and predictors of survival among Saudi patients with IPF is limited. AIMS: The aim of the study was to determine the clinical characteristics, associated comorbidities, and prognostic factors that impact IPF survival. METHODS: Consecutive IPF patients diagnosed in our ILD center were included. The information analyzed included demographics, physiological parameters, and associated comorbidities, among others. Cox regression models were used to identify independent predictors of survival. RESULTS: The data of 212 patients with IPF were available for the analysis. The mean age was 66.4 years, and 70.8% were male. The mean time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 11.6 months (range: 1–48 months). Common comorbid conditions noted in the IPF cohort included pulmonary hypertension (49.6%), diabetes mellitus (43.2%), hypertension (42.2%), osteoporosis (40.4%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (32.1%). Acute exacerbation (AE) was noted in 21.2% of the IPF patients. AE, final saturation <85%, walking distance <300 m, and antifibrotic therapy were independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: In our IPF cohort, we found that there was a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Moreover, we identified multiple comorbidities associated with IPF, which increases the burden on both IPF patients and clinicians. Importantly, AE and the use of antifibrotic therapy were independent predictors of survival. It is of paramount importance for clinicians to diagnose IPF at an early stage, refer patients to experienced centers, recognize comorbidities, and initiate antifibrotic therapy regardless of the underlying disease severity.
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N95 respirator and surgical mask in the pandemic of COVID-19
Binit Sureka, Mahendra Kumar Garg, Sanjeev Misra
October-December 2020, 15(4):247-248
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Obstructive sleep apnea screening in young people: Psychometric validation of a shortened version of the STOP-BANG questionnaire using categorical data methods
Md Dilshad Manzar, Unaise Abdul Hameed, Mazen Alqahtani, Abdulrhman Albougami, Mohammed Salahuddin, Prue Morgan, Ahmed S Bahammam, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal
October-December 2020, 15(4):215-222
BACKGROUND: The STOP-BANG is an easily administrable questionnaire for the screening of obstructive sleep apnea in adults, which may be adapted for use by young people. Here, we assessed the psychometric properties of the STOP-BN, a shortened version of the STOP-BANG questionnaire, using categorical data methods. METHODS: Four hundred and three young people (age 20.71 ± 1.93 years) were selected by random sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the STOP-BN, a tool for recording social and demographic characteristics, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), a measure of daytime sleepiness. The obtained data were analyzed using categorical data methods. RESULTS: A two-factor model was identified for the STOP-BN, using the Kaiser's criteria (eigenvalue >1) and the screen test. However, the parallel analysis based on minimum rank, and the cumulative variance criteria (>40%) identified an one-factor model. Factor loadings ranged from 0.364 to 0.745. The identified two-factor model showed acceptable fit as the reported goodness of fit index and weighted root mean square residual were in the ideal range, and the comparative fit index was close to the ideal range. Greatest lower bound to reliability for two factors of the STOP-BN was 0.67 and 0.67, indicating an acceptable internal consistency. A weak to a nonsignificant correlation between the ESS and the STOP-BN score was demonstrated, favoring STOP-BN's divergent validity. CONCLUSION: Categorical methods support the psychometric validity of the STOP-BN in the study population.
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Predictors of mortality in interstitial lung disease patients without pulmonary hypertension
Esam H Alhamad, Joseph G Cal
October-December 2020, 15(4):238-243
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information regarding prognostic factors associated with reduced survival in interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients without pulmonary hypertension (PH). AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine physiological and hemodynamic parameters that impact survival among ILD patients without PH based on right heart catheterization (RHC). METHODS: Consecutive ILD patients who underwent RHC (n = 169) at one center were included. The information analyzed included demographics and physiological and hemodynamic parameters. Cox regression models were used to identify independent predictors of survival. RESULTS: The mean age was 55.0 years, and 49.7% of the patients were females. Thirty-three patients died, and two underwent transplantation. Patients with predicted diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide <35%, walking distance <300 m, and 6-min walk test (6MWT) final oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) <85% were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk (P = 0.022, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.049, respectively; all by log-rank analysis). Advanced age, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis, reduced forced vital capacity, and low cardiac index were independent predictors of increased mortality in the ILD cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that parameters obtained from baseline pulmonary function tests and 6MWTs are important determinants of survival in ILD patients without PH. Importantly, cardiac index was the only hemodynamic variable independently associated with survival. Thus, in the absence of PH, when ILD patients perform poorly during the 6MWT manifested as reduced walking distance and desaturation at the end of the test, cardiovascular impairment must be ruled out.
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IPF in Saudi Arabia: Lessons for all
Steven D Nathan
October-December 2020, 15(4):183-184
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Predicting the survival in patients with malignant pleural effusion undergoing indwelling pleural catheter insertion
Muhammad Junaid Akram, Usman Khalid, Mohammad Bilal Ashraf, Muhammad Abu Bakar, Faheem Mahmood Butt, Faheem Khan
October-December 2020, 15(4):223-229
CONTEXT: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common comorbid condition in advanced malignancies with variable survival. AIMS: The aim of this study was to predict the survival in patients with MPE undergoing indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) insertion. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan. METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with MPE who underwent IPC insertion from January 2011 to December 2019 were reviewed. Kaplan–Meier method was used to determine the overall survival (OS) of the patient's cohort with respect to LENT score. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The IBM SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed 110 patients who underwent IPC insertion for MPE, with a mean age of 49 ± 15 years. 76 (69.1%) patients were females, of which majority 59 (53.6%) had a primary diagnosis of breast cancer. The LENT score was used for risk stratification, and Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to predict the OS. The proportion of patients with low-risk LENT score had 91%, 58%, and 29% survival, the moderate-risk group had 76%, 52%, and 14% survival, and in the high-risk group, 61%, 15%, and 0% patients survived at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. In addition, there was a statistically significant survival difference (P = 0.05) in patients who received chemotherapy pre- and post-IPC insertion. CONCLUSIONS: LENT score seems to be an easy and attainable tool, capable of predicting the survival of the patients with MPE quite accurately. It can be helpful in palliating the symptoms of patients with advanced malignancies by modifying the treatment strategies.
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A rare cause of massive hemoptysis in a child: Bronchial Dieulafoy's disease - the first report of transcatheter treatment in pediatric age
Mario Giordano, Maurizio Cappelli Bigazzi, Maria Teresa Palladino, Maria Giovanna Russo
October-December 2020, 15(4):244-246
We report a case of bronchial Dieulafoy's disease in the pediatric age. Angio-computed tomography scan and arteriography addressed us to diagnosis. Bronchial endoscopy with biopsy was avoided due to the high risk of developing a life-threatening hemorrhage. Transcatheter embolization of the bleeding bronchial artery was achieved with a MicroPlex® 10 HyperSoft 3D 3.5 mm × 80 mm System (MicroVention, Tustin, CA, USA). Dieulafoy's disease is an extremely rare lesion in the pediatric age, and the small diameter of the bleeding vessels may complicate the percutaneous approach with procedural failure. Currently, the novel thin and soft detachable coils allowed to widen the transcatheter embolization in the pediatric age.
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